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Psychology
Knockdown of zif268 in the posterior dorsolateral striatum does not enduringly disrupt a response memory of a rewarded T-maze task
Jul 24, 2017   Neuroscience
Cahill EN, Vousden GH, Exton-McGuinness MTJ, Beh IRC, Swerner CB, Macak M, Abas S, Cole CC, Kelleher BF, Everitt BJ, Milton AL
Knockdown of zif268 in the posterior dorsolateral striatum does not enduringly disrupt a response memory of a rewarded T-maze task
Jul 24, 2017
Neuroscience
Under certain conditions pavlovian memories undergo reconsolidation, whereby the reactivated memory can be disrupted by manipulations such as knockdown of zif268. For instrumental memories, reconsolidation disruption is less well established. Our previous, preliminary data identified that there was an increase in Zif268 in the posterior dorsolateral striatum (pDLS) after expression of an instrumental habit-like 'response' memory, but not an instrumental goal-directed 'place' memory on a T-maze task. Here, the requirement for Zif268 in the reconsolidation of a response memory was tested by knockdown of Zif268, using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infusion into the pDLS, at memory reactivation. Zif268 knockdown reduced response memory expression 72H, but not 7d later. Western blotting revealed a non-significant increase in Zif268 in the pDLS in rats using response memories, but there was no change in Zif268 expression in the hippocampus following retrieval of a place memory. Zif268 expression increased in the basolateral amygdala after memory reactivation whether a response or place strategy was used during reactivation. We propose that Zif268 expression in the basolateral amygdala may be linked to prediction error, generated by the absence of reward at reactivation. Taken together, these results suggest a complex role for Zif268 in the maintenance of instrumental memories. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Insula-based networks in professional musicians: Evidence for increased functional connectivity during resting state fMRI
Jul 24, 2017   Human Brain Mapping
Zamorano AM, Cifre I, Montoya P, Riquelme I, Kleber B
Insula-based networks in professional musicians: Evidence for increased functional connectivity during resting state fMRI
Jul 24, 2017
Human Brain Mapping
Despite considerable research on experience-dependent neuroplasticity in professional musicians, detailed understanding of an involvement of the insula is only now beginning to emerge. We investigated the effects of musical training on intrinsic insula-based connectivity in professional classical musicians relative to nonmusicians using resting-state functional MRI. Following a tripartite scheme of insula subdivisions, coactivation profiles were analyzed for the posterior, ventral anterior, and dorsal anterior insula in both hemispheres. While whole-brain connectivity across all participants confirmed previously reported patterns, between-group comparisons revealed increased insular connectivity in musicians relative to nonmusicians. Coactivated regions encompassed constituents of large-scale networks involved in salience detection (e.g., anterior and middle cingulate cortex), affective processing (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole), and higher order cognition (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction), whereas no differences were found for the reversed group contrast. Importantly, these connectivity patterns were stronger in musicians who experienced more years of musical practice, including also sensorimotor regions involved in music performance (M1 hand area, S1, A1, and SMA). We conclude that musical training triggers significant reorganization in insula-based networks, potentially facilitating high-level cognitive and affective functions associated with the fast integration of multisensory information in the context of music performance. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
It doesn't matter what you say: FMRI correlates of voice learning and recognition independent of speech content
Jul 24, 2017   Cortex; A Journal Devoted To The Study Of The Nervous System And Behavior
Zäske R, Awwad Shiekh Hasan B, Belin P
It doesn't matter what you say: FMRI correlates of voice learning and recognition independent of speech content
Jul 24, 2017
Cortex; A Journal Devoted To The Study Of The Nervous System And Behavior
Listeners can recognize newly learned voices from previously unheard utterances, suggesting the acquisition of high-level speech-invariant voice representations during learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we investigated the anatomical basis underlying the acquisition of voice representations for unfamiliar speakers independent of speech, and their subsequent recognition among novel voices. Specifically, listeners studied voices of unfamiliar speakers uttering short sentences and subsequently classified studied and novel voices as "old" or "new" in a recognition test. To investigate "pure" voice learning, i.e., independent of sentence meaning, we presented German sentence stimuli to non-German speaking listeners. To disentangle stimulus-invariant and stimulus-dependent learning, during the test phase we contrasted a "same sentence" condition in which listeners heard speakers repeating the sentences from the preceding study phase, with a "different sentence" condition. Voice recognition performance was above chance in both conditions although, as expected, performance was higher for same than for different sentences. During study phases activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was related to subsequent voice recognition performance and same versus different sentence condition, suggesting an involvement of the left IFG in the interactive processing of speaker and speech information during learning. Importantly, at test reduced activation for voices correctly classified as "old" compared to "new" emerged in a network of brain areas including temporal voice areas (TVAs) of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), as well as the right inferior/middle frontal gyrus (IFG/MFG), the right medial frontal gyrus, and the left caudate. This effect of voice novelty did not interact with sentence condition, suggesting a role of temporal voice-selective areas and extra-temporal areas in the explicit recognition of learned voice identity, independent of speech content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ADHD symptoms impact smoking outcomes and withdrawal in response to Varenicline treatment for smoking cessation
Jul 24, 2017   Drug And Alcohol Dependence
Bidwell LC, Karoly HC, Hutchison KE, Bryan AD
ADHD symptoms impact smoking outcomes and withdrawal in response to Varenicline treatment for smoking cessation
Jul 24, 2017
Drug And Alcohol Dependence
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with nicotine dependence and difficulty quitting smoking. Few cessation trials specifically consider the impact of ADHD on treatment outcomes, including those testing established pharmacological therapies, such as varenicline. The current study focused on the impact of pretreatment ADHD inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of varenicline [N=205, average age=34.13(10.07), average baseline cigarettes per day=14.71(7.06)]. Given that varenicline's putative therapeutic mechanism is attenuation of withdrawal severity during abstinence, we also tested changes in withdrawal as a mediator of treatment effects in high and low ADHD groups. ADHD symptom severity in this sample was in the subclinical range. Cessation was associated with HI, but not IN, such that high HI individuals on varenicline reported the lowest smoking levels at the end of treatment across all groups (3.06cig/day for high HI vs 4.02cig/day for low HI). Individuals with high HI who received placebo had the highest smoking at the end of treatment (7.69cigs/day for high HI vs 5.56cig/day for low HI). Patterns continued at follow-up. Varenicline significantly reduced withdrawal for those with high HI, but not low HI. However, path models did not support an indirect effect of medication on reducing smoking via withdrawal in either group, suggesting that unmeasured variables are involved in varenicline's effect on reducing smoking. These data add to a gap in the smoking cessation literature regarding the impact of ADHD symptoms on the efficacy and mechanisms of frontline pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Finding features, figuratively
Jul 24, 2017   Brain And Language
Solomon SH, Thompson-Schill SL
Finding features, figuratively
Jul 24, 2017
Brain And Language
Object concepts refer to unique clusters of properties that can be selectively activated or inhibited depending on what information is currently relevant. This conceptual "stretching" enables limitless new meanings to be generated, and figurative language provides a useful framework in which to study this conceptual flexibility. Here we probe the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying the comprehension of novel metaphors as a means of understanding the conceptual flexibility inherent to language processing more generally. We show that novel metaphor comprehension involves the activation or inhibition of conceptual properties that are either relevant or irrelevant to the metaphor, and that left inferior frontal gyrus is recruited in this process, supporting a role for this region in the fine-tuning of conceptual meaning. Our results are consistent with a flexible, compositional account of conceptual structure in which semantic control mechanisms operate over conceptual properties during figurative language comprehension in order to create context-dependent meaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Common variation in the autism risk gene CNTNAP2, brain structural connectivity and multisensory speech integration
Jul 24, 2017   Brain And Language
Ross LA, Del Bene VA, Molholm S, Jae Woo Y, Andrade GN, Abrahams BS, Foxe JJ
Common variation in the autism risk gene CNTNAP2, brain structural connectivity and multisensory speech integration
Jul 24, 2017
Brain And Language
Three lines of evidence motivated this study. 1) CNTNAP2 variation is associated with autism risk and speech-language development. 2) CNTNAP2 variations are associated with differences in white matter (WM) tracts comprising the speech-language circuitry. 3) Children with autism show impairment in multisensory speech perception. Here, we asked whether an autism risk-associated CNTNAP2 single nucleotide polymorphism in neurotypical adults was associated with multisensory speech perception performance, and whether such a genotype-phenotype association was mediated through white matter tract integrity in speech-language circuitry. Risk genotype at rs7794745 was associated with decreased benefit from visual speech and lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in several WM tracts (right precentral gyrus, left anterior corona radiata, right retrolenticular internal capsule). These structural connectivity differences were found to mediate the effect of genotype on audiovisual speech perception, shedding light on possible pathogenic pathways in autism and biological sources of inter-individual variation in audiovisual speech processing in neurotypicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neural activity and emotional processing following military deployment: Effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder
Jul 24, 2017   Brain And Cognition
Zuj DV, Felmingham KL, Palmer MA, Lawrence-Wood E, Van Hooff M, Lawrence AJ, Bryant RA, McFarlane AC
Neural activity and emotional processing following military deployment: Effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder
Jul 24, 2017
Brain And Cognition
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are common comorbidities during military deployment that affect emotional brain processing, yet few studies have examined the independent effects of mTBI and PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine distinct differences in neural responses to emotional faces in mTBI and PTSD. Twenty-one soldiers reporting high PTSD symptoms were compared to 21 soldiers with low symptoms, and 16 soldiers who reported mTBI-consistent injury and symptoms were compared with 16 soldiers who did not sustain an mTBI. Participants viewed emotional face expressions while their neural activity was recorded (via event-related potentials) prior to and following deployment. The high-PTSD group displayed increased P1 and P2 amplitudes to threatening faces at post-deployment compared to the low-PTSD group. In contrast, the mTBI group displayed reduced face-specific processing (N170 amplitude) to all facial expressions compared to the no-mTBI group. Here, we identified distinctive neural patterns of emotional face processing, with attentional biases towards threatening faces in PTSD, and reduced emotional face processing in mTBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparing Plasma Phospho Tau, Total Tau, and Phospho Tau-Total Tau Ratio as Acute and Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury Biomarkers
Jul 24, 2017   JAMA Neurology
Rubenstein R, Chang B, Yue JK, Chiu A, Winkler EA,   . . . . . .   , Inoue T, Maas AIR, Menon DK, Schnyer DM, Vassar MJ
Comparing Plasma Phospho Tau, Total Tau, and Phospho Tau-Total Tau Ratio as Acute and Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury Biomarkers
Jul 24, 2017
JAMA Neurology
Annually in the United States, at least 3.5 million people seek medical attention for traumatic brain injury (TBI). The development of therapies for TBI is limited by the absence of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Microtubule-associated protein tau is an axonal phosphoprotein. To date, the presence of the hypophosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) in plasma from patients with acute TBI and chronic TBI has not been investigated. To examine the associations between plasma P-tau and total-tau (T-tau) levels and injury presence, severity, type of pathoanatomic lesion (neuroimaging), and patient outcomes in acute and chronic TBI. In the TRACK-TBI Pilot study, plasma was collected at a single time point from 196 patients with acute TBI admitted to 3 level I trauma centers (4) (AUC = 0.771 and 0.777, respectively). Plasma samples from patients with chronic TBI also showed elevated P-tau levels and a P-tau-T-tau ratio significantly higher than that of healthy controls, with both P-tau indices strongly discriminating patients with chronic TBI from healthy controls (AUC = 1.000 and 0.963, respectively). Plasma P-tau levels and P-tau-T-tau ratio outperformed T-tau level as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for acute TBI. Compared with T-tau levels alone, P-tau levels and P-tau-T-tau ratios show more robust and sustained elevations among patients with chronic TBI.
Short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased systemic redox metabolites and altered epigenetic status
Jul 24, 2017   PloS One
Trivedi MS, Holger D, Bui AT, Craddock TJA, Tartar JL
Short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased systemic redox metabolites and altered epigenetic status
Jul 24, 2017
PloS One
Sleep is critical for repair as well as the rejuvenation processes in the body and many of these functions are regulated via underlying cellular metabolic homeostasis. Changes in sleep pattern are reported to alter such metabolic function resulting in altered disease susceptibility or behavior. Here, we measured the extent to which overnight total sleep deprivation (SD) in young adult humans can influence systemic (plasma-derived) redox-metabolism including the major antioxidant, glutathione as well as DNA methylation levels. Nineteen participants (n = 19, μ age = 21, SD = 3.09) underwent morning testing before and after overnight total SD. Biochemical measures before and after SD revealed that glutathione, ATP, cysteine, and homocysteine levels were significantly reduced following one night of sleep deprivation (all p's < 0.01). Parallel to the well-recognized fact that sleep deprivation (maintaining wakefulness) uses up metabolic reserves, we observed that morning cortisol levels were blunted after sleep deprivation. There were no significant correlations between self-reported or actigraphy-measured sleep and the biochemical measurements, strongly indicating that prior sleep behavior did not have any direct influence on the biochemical measures taken at baseline or after sleep deprivation. Results from the current investigation supports the previous literature implicating the induction of oxidative stress and ATP depletion with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, such altered antioxidant status can also induce downstream epigenetic changes. Although we did not measure the specific genes that were altered under the influence of such sleep deprivation, such epigenetic changes could potentially contribute towards disease predisposition.
Adversity, emotion recognition, and empathic concern in high-risk youth
Jul 24, 2017   PloS One
Quas JA, Dickerson KL, Matthew R, Harron C, Quas CM
Adversity, emotion recognition, and empathic concern in high-risk youth
Jul 24, 2017
PloS One
Little is known about how emotion recognition and empathy jointly operate in youth growing up in contexts defined by persistent adversity. We investigated whether adversity exposure in two groups of youth was associated with reduced empathy and whether deficits in emotion recognition mediated this association. Foster, rural poor, and comparison youth from Swaziland, Africa identified emotional expressions and rated their empathic concern for characters depicted in images showing positive, ambiguous, and negative scenes. Rural and foster youth perceived greater anger and happiness in the main characters in ambiguous and negative images than did comparison youth. Rural children also perceived less sadness. Youth's perceptions of sadness in the negative and ambiguous expressions mediated the relation between adversity and empathic concern, but only for the rural youth, who perceived less sadness, which then predicted less empathy. Findings provide new insight into processes that underlie empathic tendencies in adversity-exposed youth and highlight potential directions for interventions to increase empathy.
Atypical speech versus non-speech detection and discrimination in 4- to 6- yr old children with autism spectrum disorder: An ERP study
Jul 24, 2017   PloS One
Galilee A, Stefanidou C, McCleery JP
Atypical speech versus non-speech detection and discrimination in 4- to 6- yr old children with autism spectrum disorder: An ERP study
Jul 24, 2017
PloS One
Previous event-related potential (ERP) research utilizing oddball stimulus paradigms suggests diminished processing of speech versus non-speech sounds in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, brain mechanisms underlying these speech processing abnormalities, and to what extent they are related to poor language abilities in this population remain unknown. In the current study, we utilized a novel paired repetition paradigm in order to investigate ERP responses associated with the detection and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds in 4- to 6-year old children with ASD, compared with gender and verbal age matched controls. ERPs were recorded while children passively listened to pairs of stimuli that were either both speech sounds, both non-speech sounds, speech followed by non-speech, or non-speech followed by speech. Control participants exhibited N330 match/mismatch responses measured from temporal electrodes, reflecting speech versus non-speech detection, bilaterally, whereas children with ASD exhibited this effect only over temporal electrodes in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, while the control groups exhibited match/mismatch effects at approximately 600 ms (central N600, temporal P600) when a non-speech sound was followed by a speech sound, these effects were absent in the ASD group. These findings suggest that children with ASD fail to activate right hemisphere mechanisms, likely associated with social or emotional aspects of speech detection, when distinguishing non-speech from speech stimuli. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of atypical speech versus non-speech processing in children with ASD when compared with typically developing children matched on verbal age.
Memory rehabilitation for the working memory of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)
Jul 24, 2017   Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Neuropsychology
Mousavi S, Zare H, Etemadifar M, Taher Neshatdoost H
Memory rehabilitation for the working memory of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)
Jul 24, 2017
Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Neuropsychology
The main cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS) affect the working memory, processing speed, and performances that are in close interaction with one another. Cognitive problems in MS are influenced to a lesser degree by disease recovery medications or treatments,but cognitive rehabilitation is considered one of the promising methods for cure. There is evidence regarding the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for MS patients in various stages of the disease. Since the impairment in working memory is one of the main MS deficits, a particular training that affects this cognitive domain can be of a great value. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of memory rehabilitation on the working memory performance of MS patients. Sixty MS patients with cognitive impairment and similar in terms of demographic characteristics, duration of disease, neurological problems, and mental health were randomly assigned to three groups: namely, experimental, placebo, and control. Patients' cognitive evaluation incorporated baseline assessments immediately post-intervention and 5 weeks post-intervention. The experimental group received a cognitive rehabilitation program in one-hour sessions on a weekly basis for 8 weeks. The placebo group received relaxation techniques on a weekly basis; the control group received no intervention. The results of this study showed that the cognitive rehabilitation program had a positive effect on the working memory performance of patients with MS in the experimental group. These results were achieved in immediate evaluation (post-test) and follow-up 5 weeks after intervention. There was no significant difference in working memory performance between the placebo group and the control group. According to the study, there is evidence for the effectiveness of a memory rehabilitation program for the working memory of patients with MS. Cognitive rehabilitation can improve working memory disorders and have a positive effect on the working memory performance of these patients.
Exteroceptive stimuli override interoceptive state in reaction time control
Jul 24, 2017   Psychophysiology
Yang X, Jennings JR, Friedman BH
Exteroceptive stimuli override interoceptive state in reaction time control
Jul 24, 2017
Psychophysiology
The processing of reaction time (RT) stimulus is modulated by its timing relative to the cardiac cycle. RT stimulus processing is also influenced by task-irrelevant stimuli: a sensory stimulus speeds RT when it accompanies a cue to react in another sensory modality. Different theories have been proposed to explain this accessory stimulus effect (ASE). However, it is unclear whether the ASE interacts with the cardiac timing effect. In the present study, the relationship of the ASE, cardiac timing, and stimulus valence was examined. Fifty-two subjects performed 400 trials of a simple RT task. Images of neutral and fear faces served as visual accessory stimuli; the RT stimulus was a 75 dB tone. Electrocardiography was recorded. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented at either cardiac systole or diastole. The stimulus onset asynchrony between visual and auditory stimuli was either 0 or 75 ms. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed that cardiac timing modulated RT, but only when accessory stimuli were absent. RT was shorter when the accessory stimulus preceded the imperative stimulus with respect to simultaneous presentation. The ASE was not influenced by visual stimulus valence or cardiac timing. Results indicate that the ASE overrides cardiac timing effects, suggesting a dynamic balance between exteroceptive stimuli and interoceptive states, and highlight the importance of embodied information processing. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Overlap among Spatial Memories Triggers Repulsion of Hippocampal Representations
Jul 24, 2017   Current Biology : CB
Chanales AJH, Oza A, Favila SE, Kuhl BA
Overlap among Spatial Memories Triggers Repulsion of Hippocampal Representations
Jul 24, 2017
Current Biology : CB
Across the domains of spatial navigation and episodic memory, the hippocampus is thought to play a critical role in disambiguating (pattern separating) representations of overlapping events. However, it is not fully understood how and why hippocampal patterns become separated. Here, we test the idea that event overlap triggers a "repulsion" among hippocampal representations that develops over the course of learning. Using a naturalistic route-learning paradigm and spatiotemporal pattern analysis of human fMRI data, we found that hippocampal representations of overlapping routes gradually diverged with learning to the point that they became less similar than representations of non-overlapping events. In other words, the hippocampus not only disambiguated overlapping events but formed representations that "reversed" the objective similarity among routes. This finding, which was selective to the hippocampus, is not predicted by standard theoretical accounts of pattern separation. Critically, because the overlapping route stimuli that we used ultimately diverged (so that each route contained overlapping and non-overlapping segments), we were able to test whether the reversal effect was selective to the overlapping segments. Indeed, once overlapping routes diverged (eliminating spatial and visual similarity), hippocampal representations paradoxically became relatively more similar. Finally, using a novel analysis approach, we show that the degree to which individual hippocampal voxels were initially shared across route representations was predictive of the magnitude of learning-related separation. Collectively, these findings indicate that event overlap triggers a repulsion of hippocampal representations-a finding that provides critical mechanistic insight into how and why hippocampal representations become separated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
MicroRNAs: Roles in Regulating Neuroinflammation
Jul 24, 2017   The Neuroscientist : A Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology And Psychiatry
Gaudet AD, Fonken LK, Watkins LR, Nelson RJ, Popovich PG
MicroRNAs: Roles in Regulating Neuroinflammation
Jul 24, 2017
The Neuroscientist : A Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology And Psychiatry
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that broadly affect cellular and physiological function in all multicellular organisms. Here, the role of miRNAs in neuroinflammation is considered. miRNAs are 21- to 23-oligonucleotide RNAs that regulate translation of specific RNAs by binding to complementary regulatory RNA sequences, thereby causing mRNA degradation or sequestration. More than 5000 miRNAs likely exist in humans, and each miRNA binds an average of 200 RNAs. Specific immunomodulatory miRNAs can regulate a set of RNAs in a coordinated manner, suggesting that effective miRNA-based therapeutic manipulations for neuroinflammatory conditions may be revealed. For instance, miRNAs that preferentially inhibit translation of many cellular anti-inflammatory proteins could drive a pro-inflammatory response. Key pro-inflammatory ( miR-155, miR-27b, miR-326), anti-inflammatory ( miR-124, miR-146a, miR-21, miR-223), and mixed immunomodulatory ( let-7 family) miRNAs regulate neuroinflammation in various pathologies, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. miRNAs represent a newly revealed layer of physiological complexity, the therapeutic benefits of which remain to be fully explored and exploited. In this review, we discuss the role of miRNAs in neuroinflammatory regulation and discuss how controlling miRNAs could alter cellular machinery to improve neuroinflammatory dynamics.
Beliefs about emotion: implications for avoidance-based emotion regulation and psychological health
Jul 24, 2017   Cognition & Emotion
De Castella K, Platow MJ, Tamir M, Gross JJ
Beliefs about emotion: implications for avoidance-based emotion regulation and psychological health
Jul 24, 2017
Cognition & Emotion
People's beliefs about their ability to control their emotions predict a range of important psychological outcomes. It is not clear, however, whether these beliefs are playing a causal role, and if so, why this might be. In the current research, we tested whether avoidance-based emotion regulation explains the link between beliefs and psychological outcomes. In Study 1 (N = 112), a perceived lack of control over emotions predicted poorer psychological health outcomes (increased self-reported avoidance, lower well-being, and higher levels of clinical symptoms), and avoidance strategies indirectly explained these links between emotion beliefs and psychological health. In Study 2 (N = 101), we experimentally manipulated participants' emotion beliefs by leading participants to believe that they struggled (low regulatory self-efficacy) or did not struggle (high regulatory self-efficacy) with controlling their emotions. Participants in the low regulatory self-efficacy condition reported increased intentions to engage in avoidance strategies over the next month and were more likely to avoid seeking psychological help. When asked if they would participate in follow-up studies, these participants were also more likely to display avoidance-based emotion regulation. These findings provide initial evidence for the causal role of emotion beliefs in avoidance-based emotion regulation, and document their impact on psychological health-related outcomes.
Anxiety symptoms and children's eye gaze during fear learning
Jul 24, 2017   Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, And Allied Disciplines
Michalska KJ, Machlin L, Moroney E, Lowet DS, Hettema JM, Roberson-Nay R, Averbeck BB, Brotman MA, Nelson EE, Leibenluft E, Pine DS
Anxiety symptoms and children's eye gaze during fear learning
Jul 24, 2017
Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, And Allied Disciplines
The eye region of the face is particularly relevant for decoding threat-related signals, such as fear. However, it is unclear if gaze patterns to the eyes can be influenced by fear learning. Previous studies examining gaze patterns in adults find an association between anxiety and eye gaze avoidance, although no studies to date examine how associations between anxiety symptoms and eye-viewing patterns manifest in children. The current study examined the effects of learning and trait anxiety on eye gaze using a face-based fear conditioning task developed for use in children. Participants were 82 youth from a general population sample of twins (aged 9-13 years), exhibiting a range of anxiety symptoms. Participants underwent a fear conditioning paradigm where the conditioned stimuli (CS+) were two neutral faces, one of which was randomly selected to be paired with an aversive scream. Eye tracking, physiological, and subjective data were acquired. Children and parents reported their child's anxiety using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. Conditioning influenced eye gaze patterns in that children looked longer and more frequently to the eye region of the CS+ than CS- face; this effect was present only during fear acquisition, not at baseline or extinction. Furthermore, consistent with past work in adults, anxiety symptoms were associated with eye gaze avoidance. Finally, gaze duration to the eye region mediated the effect of anxious traits on self-reported fear during acquisition. Anxiety symptoms in children relate to face-viewing strategies deployed in the context of a fear learning experiment. This relationship may inform attempts to understand the relationship between pediatric anxiety symptoms and learning. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Risky Decision Making in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: An Exploratory Study
Jul 24, 2017   Biological Psychiatry. Cognitive Neuroscience And Neuroimaging
Jonas RK, Roh E, Montojo CA, Pacheco LA, Rosser T, Silva AJ, Bearden CE
Risky Decision Making in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: An Exploratory Study
Jul 24, 2017
Biological Psychiatry. Cognitive Neuroscience And Neuroimaging
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic disorder affecting cognitive function. About one third of children with NF1 have attentional disorders, and the cognitive phenotype is characterized by impairment in prefrontally-mediated functions. Mouse models of NF1 show irregularities in GABA release and striatal dopamine metabolism. We hypothesized that youth with NF1 would show abnormal behavior and neural activity on a task of risk-taking reliant on prefrontal-striatal circuits. Youth with NF1 (N=29) and demographically comparable healthy controls (N=22), ages 8-19, were administered a developmentally sensitive gambling task, in which they chose between low-risk gambles with a high probability of obtaining a small reward, and high-risk gambles with a low probability of obtaining a large reward. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activity associated with risky decision making, as well as age-associated changes in these behavioral and neural processes. Behaviorally, youth with NF1 tended to make fewer risky decisions than controls. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significantly reduced neural activity across multiple brain regions involved in higher-order semantic processing and motivation (i.e., anterior cingulate, paracingulate, supramarginal, and angular gyri) in patients with NF1 relative to controls during the task. We also observed atypical age-associated changes in neural activity in patients with NF1, such that during risk taking, neural activity tended to decrease with age in controls, whereas it tended to increase with age in patients with NF1. Findings suggest that developmental trajectories of neural activity during risky decision-making may be disrupted in youth with NF1.
Three-dimensional OCT based guinea pig eye model: relating morphology and optics
Jul 24, 2017   Biomedical Optics Express
Pérez-Merino P, Velasco-Ocana M, Martinez-Enriquez E, Revuelta L, McFadden SA, Marcos S
Three-dimensional OCT based guinea pig eye model: relating morphology and optics
Jul 24, 2017
Biomedical Optics Express
Custom Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure the 3-D morphology in guinea pig eyes (n = 8, 30 days; n = 5, 40 days). Animals were measured awake in vivo under cyclopegia. Measurements showed low intraocular variability (
Typical versus delayed speech onset influences verbal reporting of autistic interests
Jul 24, 2017   Molecular Autism
Chiodo L, Majerus S, Mottron L
Typical versus delayed speech onset influences verbal reporting of autistic interests
Jul 24, 2017
Molecular Autism
The distinction between autism and Asperger syndrome has been abandoned in the DSM-5. However, this clinical categorization largely overlaps with the presence or absence of a speech onset delay which is associated with clinical, cognitive, and neural differences. It is unknown whether these different speech development pathways and associated cognitive differences are involved in the heterogeneity of the restricted interests that characterize autistic adults. This study tested the hypothesis that speech onset delay, or conversely, early mastery of speech, orients the nature and verbal reporting of adult autistic interests. The occurrence of a priori defined descriptors for perceptual and thematic dimensions were determined, as well as the perceived function and benefits, in the response of autistic people to a semi-structured interview on their intense interests. The number of words, grammatical categories, and proportion of perceptual/thematic descriptors were computed and compared between groups by variance analyses. The participants comprised 40 autistic adults grouped according to the presence (N = 20) or absence (N = 20) of speech onset delay, as well as 20 non-autistic adults, also with intense interests, matched for non-verbal intelligence using Raven's Progressive Matrices. The overall nature, function, and benefit of intense interests were similar across autistic subgroups, and between autistic and non-autistic groups. However, autistic participants with a history of speech onset delay used more perceptual than thematic descriptors when talking about their interests, whereas the opposite was true for autistic individuals without speech onset delay. This finding remained significant after controlling for linguistic differences observed between the two groups. Verbal reporting, but not the nature or positive function, of intense interests differed between adult autistic individuals depending on their speech acquisition history: oral reporting of intense interests was characterized by perceptual dominance for autistic individuals with delayed speech onset and thematic dominance for those without. This may contribute to the heterogeneous presentation observed among autistic adults of normal intelligence.
Mind-Body Practice Changes Fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations in Intrinsic Control Networks
Jul 24, 2017   Frontiers In Psychology
Wei GX, Gong ZQ, Yang Z, Zuo XN
Mind-Body Practice Changes Fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations in Intrinsic Control Networks
Jul 24, 2017
Frontiers In Psychology
Cognitive control impairment is a typical symptom largely reported in populations with neurological disorders. Previous studies have provided evidence about the changes in cognitive control induced by mind-body training. However, the neural correlates underlying the effect of extensive mind-body practice on cognitive control remain largely unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we characterized dynamic fluctuations in large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks associated with mind-body practice, and examined their differences between healthy controls and Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practitioners. Compared with a control group, the TCC group revealed significantly decreased fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) in the bilateral frontoparietal network, default mode network and dorsal prefrontal-angular gyri network. Furthermore, we detected a significant association between mind-body practice experience and fALFF in the default mode network, as well as an association between cognitive control performance and fALFF of the frontoparietal network. This provides the first evidence of large-scale functional connectivity in brain networks associated with mind-body practice, shedding light on the neural network changes that accompany intensive mind-body training. It also highlights the functionally plastic role of the frontoparietal network in the context of the "immune system" of mental health recently developed in relation to flexible hub theory.
Group-Level Progressive Alterations in Brain Connectivity Patterns Revealed by Diffusion-Tensor Brain Networks across Severity Stages in Alzheimer's Disease
Jul 24, 2017   Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience
Rasero J, Alonso-Montes C, Diez I, Olabarrieta-Landa L, Remaki L, Escudero I, Mateos B, Bonifazi P, Fernandez M, Arango-Lasprilla JC, Stramaglia S, Cortes JM, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Group-Level Progressive Alterations in Brain Connectivity Patterns Revealed by Diffusion-Tensor Brain Networks across Severity Stages in Alzheimer's Disease
Jul 24, 2017
Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronically progressive neurodegenerative disease highly correlated to aging. Whether AD originates by targeting a localized brain area and propagates to the rest of the brain across disease-severity progression is a question with an unknown answer. Here, we aim to provide an answer to this question at the group-level by looking at differences in diffusion-tensor brain networks. In particular, making use of data from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), four different groups were defined (all of them matched by age, sex and education level): G1 (N1 = 36, healthy control subjects, Control), G2 (N2 = 36, early mild cognitive impairment, EMCI), G3 (N3 = 36, late mild cognitive impairment, LMCI) and G4 (N4 = 36, AD). Diffusion-tensor brain networks were compared across three disease stages: stage I (Control vs. EMCI), stage II (Control vs. LMCI) and stage III (Control vs. AD). The group comparison was performed using the multivariate distance matrix regression analysis, a technique that was born in genomics and was recently proposed to handle brain functional networks, but here applied to diffusion-tensor data. The results were threefold: First, no significant differences were found in stage I. Second, significant differences were found in stage II in the connectivity pattern of a subnetwork strongly associated to memory function (including part of the hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, fusiform gyrus, inferior and middle temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and temporal pole). Third, a widespread disconnection across the entire AD brain was found in stage III, affecting more strongly the same memory subnetwork appearing in stage II, plus the other new subnetworks, including the default mode network, medial visual network, frontoparietal regions and striatum. Our results are consistent with a scenario where progressive alterations of connectivity arise as the disease severity increases and provide the brain areas possibly involved in such a degenerative process. Further studies applying the same strategy to longitudinal data are needed to fully confirm this scenario.
Non-BOLD contrast for laminar fMRI in humans: CBF, CBV, and CMR02
Jul 24, 2017   NeuroImage
Huber L, Uludağ K, Möller HE
Non-BOLD contrast for laminar fMRI in humans: CBF, CBV, and CMR02
Jul 24, 2017
NeuroImage
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast indirectly probes neuronal activity changes via evoked cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMR02) changes. The gradient-echo BOLD signal is mostly sensitive to ascending veins in the tissue and to pial veins. Thereby, the achievable spatial specificity to neuronal activation is limited. Furthermore, the non-linear interaction of CBF, CBV and CMR02 can hamper quantitative interpretations of the BOLD signal across cortical depths with different baseline physiology. Measuring CBF, CBV or CMR02 directly on a depth-dependent level has the potential to overcome these limitations. Here, we review these candidates of physiologically well-defined contrasts with the particular focus on arterial spin labeling (ASL), vascular space occupancy (VASO) and calibrated fMRI. These methods are reviewed with respect to their fMRI sequence parameter space and the applicability for neuroscientific studies in humans. We show representative results of depth-dependent 'non-BOLD-fMRI' in humans and their spatiotemporal characteristics. We conclude that non-BOLD methods are promising alternatives compared to conventional fMRI as they can provide improved spatial specificity, quantifiability and, hence, physiological interpretability as a function of cortical depth. At submillimeter resolution with inherently low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), however, their use is still challenging. Nevertheless, we believe that 'non-BOLD-fMRI' is a useful alternative for depth-dependent investigations, by providing valuable insights into neurovascular coupling models that facilitate the interpretability of fMRI for neuroscientific applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Neural interactions mediating conflict control and its training-induced plasticity
Jul 24, 2017   NeuroImage
Hu M, Wang X, Zhang W, Hu X, Chen A
Neural interactions mediating conflict control and its training-induced plasticity
Jul 24, 2017
NeuroImage
Cognitive control is of great plasticity. Training programs targeted on improving it have been suggested to yield neural changes in the brain. However, until recently, the relationship between training-induced brain changes and improvements in cognitive control is still an open issue. Besides, although the literature has attributed the operation of cognitive control to interactions between large-scale networks, the neural pathways directly associated with it remain unclear. The current study aimed to examine these issues by focusing on conflict processing. In particular, we employed a training program with a randomized controlled design. The main findings were as follows: 1) In behavior, the training group showed reduced conflict effect after training, relative to the control group; 2) In the pretest stage, the behavioral conflict effect was negatively correlated with a number of neural pathways, including the connectivity from the cingulo-opercular network (CON) to the cerebellum and to sub-regions of the dorsal visual network; 3) increase in the connectivity strength of several network interactions, such as the connectivity from the CON to the cerebellum and to the primary visual network, was associated with behavioral gains; 4) there were also nonlinear correlations between behavioral and neural changes. These findings highlighted a critical role of the modulation of CON on other networks in mediating conflict processing and its plasticity, and raised the significance of investigating nonlinear relationship in the field of cognitive training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Habitual sleep quality and diurnal rhythms of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in postmenopausal women
Jul 24, 2017   Psychoneuroendocrinology
Huang T, Poole EM, Vetter C, Rexrode KM, Kubzansky LD, Schernhammer E, Rohleder N, Hu FB, Redline S, Tworoger SS
Habitual sleep quality and diurnal rhythms of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in postmenopausal women
Jul 24, 2017
Psychoneuroendocrinology
Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as a potential mechanism linking sleep and cardiometabolic disorders. However, the associations of two primary outputs of the HPA axis, cortisol and its antagonist dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), with sleep are less well studied. In the Nurses' Health Study II, 233 postmenopausal women provided five timed saliva samples over one day (immediately upon waking, 45min, 4h, and 10h after waking, and prior to going to sleep) to measure cortisol and DHEA. Of these, 209 completed assessment of their habitual sleep patterns using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We used piecewise linear mixed models to compare cross-sectional associations of slopes reflecting diurnal cortisol and DHEA rhythms with overall sleep quality and with seven sub-components. Overall, we observed no differences in the diurnal patterns of cortisol or DHEA between good versus poor sleepers as assessed by the global PSQI score. However, longer sleep latency was associated with significantly reduced cortisol awakening rise (p=0.02). Poorer subjective sleep quality (p=0.02), shorter sleep duration (p=0.02), and lower sleep efficiency (p=0.03) were associated with slower rate of cortisol decline later in the day. Women reporting daytime dysfunction had a sharper cortisol decline early in the day (p=0.03) but a flattened decline later in the day (p=0.01). The differences in diurnal patterns of DHEA between good versus poor sleepers, though less pronounced, were similar in direction to those of cortisol. Self-reported sleep duration, efficiency, latency and daytime dysfunction were associated with altered diurnal rhythms of cortisol and, to a lesser extent, DHEA. These findings provide support for the interplay between sleep and the HPA axis that may contribute to cardiometabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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