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Psychology
Baseline cognitive test performance and concussion-like symptoms among adolescent athletes with ADHD: examining differences based on medication use
Apr 21, 2017   The Clinical Neuropsychologist
Cook NE, Huang DS, Silverberg ND, Brooks BL, Maxwell B, Zafonte R, Berkner PD, Iverson GL
Baseline cognitive test performance and concussion-like symptoms among adolescent athletes with ADHD: examining differences based on medication use
Apr 21, 2017
The Clinical Neuropsychologist
Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) perform more poorly on preseason cognitive testing and report more baseline concussion-like symptoms but prior studies have not examined the influence of medication use on test performance or symptom reporting. This study investigated whether medication use is relevant when interpreting baseline ImPACT® results from student athletes with ADHD. Participants were 39,247 adolescent athletes, ages 13-18 (mean age = 15.5 years, SD = 1.3), who completed baseline cognitive testing with ImPACT®. The sample included slightly more boys (54.4%) than girls. Differences in ImPACT® composite scores and concussion-like symptom reporting (between ADHD/No medication, ADHD/Medication, No ADHD/Medication, and Control groups) were examined with ANOVAs, conducted separately by gender. In this large, state-wide data-set, youth with ADHD had greater rates of invalid ImPACT results compared to control subjects (ADHD/No Medication: girls = 10.9%, boys = 10%; ADHD/Medication: girls = 8.1%, boys = 9.1%; Controls: girls = 5.2%, boys = 6.7%). Groups differed across all ImPACT® composites (invalid profiles were removed), in the following order (from worse to better performance): ADHD/No Medication, ADHD/Medication, and Control participants. Pairwise effect sizes indicated that the largest differences were on the Visual Motor Speed composite, with the ADHD/No medication group performing worse than the ADHD/Medication group and the Controls. The ADHD/Medication group did not differ meaningfully from Controls on any composite, for either sex (d = 0 to .19). The ADHD groups did not differ on total symptom scores but both ADHD groups endorsed significantly more symptoms compared to Controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found medication use had only a subtle effect on cognitive performance and no significant effect on concussion-like symptom reporting. Student athletes reporting medication use for ADHD performed comparably to student athletes with no ADHD on baseline testing.
Recognition of depression by primary care clinicians in rural Ethiopia
Apr 22, 2017   BMC Family Practice
Fekadu A, Medhin G, Selamu M, Giorgis TW, Lund C, Alem A, Prince M, Hanlon C
Recognition of depression by primary care clinicians in rural Ethiopia
Apr 22, 2017
BMC Family Practice
Depression is a common health condition affecting up to a third of patients attending primary care, where most of the care for people with depression is provided. Adequate recognition of depression is the critical step in the path to effective care, particularly in low income countries. As part of the Programme for Improving Mental healthcare (PRIME), a project supporting the implementation of integrated mental healthcare in primary care, we evaluated the level of recognition of depression by clinicians working in primary care in rural Ethiopia prior to in service training. We hypothesised that the detection rate of depression will be under 10% and that detection would be affected by gender, education and severity of depression. Cross-sectional survey in eight health centres serving a population of over 160,000 people. A validated version of the 9-item patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) was administered as an indicator of probable depression. In addition, primary care clinicians completed a clinician encounter form. Participants were consecutive primary care attendees aged 18 years and above. A total of 1014 participants were assessed. Primary care clinicians diagnosed 13 attendees (1.3%) with depression. The PHQ9 prevalence of depression at a cut-off score of ten was 11.5% (n = 117), of whom 5% (n = 6/117) had received a diagnosis of depression by primary care clinicians. Attendees with higher PHQ scores and suicidality were significantly more likely to receive a diagnosis of depression by clinicians. Women (n = 9/13) and participants with higher educational attainment were more likely to be diagnosed with depression, albeit non-significantly. All cases diagnosed with depression by the clinicians had presented with psychological symptoms. Although not based on a gold standard diagnosis, over 98% of cases with PHQ-9 depression were undetected. Failure of recognition of depression may pose a serious threat to the scale up of mental healthcare in low income countries. Addressing this threat should be an urgent priority, and requires a better understanding of the nature of depression and its presentation in rural low-income primary care settings.
The good lies: Altruistic goals modulate processing of deception in the anterior insula
Apr 22, 2017   Human Brain Mapping
Yin L, Hu Y, Dynowski D, Li J, Weber B
The good lies: Altruistic goals modulate processing of deception in the anterior insula
Apr 22, 2017
Human Brain Mapping
When it comes to lies, the beneficiaries of one's dishonesty play an important role in the decision-making process. Altruistic lies that are made with the intention of benefiting others are a specific type of lies and very common in real life. While it has been shown that altruistic goals influence (dis)honest behaviors, the neural substrates of this effect is still unknown. To reveal how the brain integrates altruistic goals into (dis)honest decisions, this study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural activity of participants in a real incentivized context while they were making (dis)honest decisions. We manipulated the beneficiaries of individuals' decisions (self vs. a charity) and whether the choices of higher payoffs involved deception or not. While finding that participants lied more often to benefit charities than for themselves, we observed that the altruistic goal of benefiting a charity, compared with the self-serving goal, reduced the activity in the anterior insula (AI) when lying to achieve higher payoffs. Furthermore, the degree of altruistic goal-induced reduction of AI activity was positively correlated with the degree of altruistic goal-induced reduction of honesty concerns. These results suggest that the AI serves as a neural hub in modulating the effect of altruistic goals on deception, which shed light on the underlying neural mechanism of altruistic lies. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cross-species studies of cognition relevant to drug discovery: A translational approach
Apr 22, 2017   British Journal Of Pharmacology
Robbins TW
Cross-species studies of cognition relevant to drug discovery: A translational approach
Apr 22, 2017
British Journal Of Pharmacology
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine. Functional neuroimaging evidence suggests a modulation of circuitry including the inferior prefrontal cortex by this drug. Parallel work in rats had shown that atomoxetine improves stop signal performance by affecting possibly homologous regions of the rodent prefrontal cortex. This parallel effect of atomoxetine in rodents and humans could potentially be exploited in other disorders in which impulsivity plays a role such as stimulant abuse and Parkinson's disease. A contrasting relative lack of involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine mechanisms in the stop signal reaction time task will also be described. Research in humans and experimental animals that demonstrate effects of serotoninergic agents such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on probabilistic learning and reversal (upon which atomoxetine has little effect) will also be reviewed, possibly relevant to the treatment of clinical depression, Finally, other promising examples of parallel studies of behavioural effects of CNS-active drugs in animals and humans will also be described. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Less approach, more avoidance: Response inhibition has motivational consequences for sexual stimuli that reflect changes in affective value not a lingering global brake on behavior
Apr 22, 2017   Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Driscoll RL, de Launay KQ, Fenske MJ
Less approach, more avoidance: Response inhibition has motivational consequences for sexual stimuli that reflect changes in affective value not a lingering global brake on behavior
Apr 22, 2017
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Response inhibition negatively impacts subsequent hedonic evaluations of motivationally relevant stimuli and reduces the behavioral incentive to seek and obtain such items. Here we expand the investigation of the motivational consequences of inhibition by presenting sexually appealing and nonappealing images in a go/no-go task and a subsequent image-viewing task. Each initially obscured image in the viewing task could either be made more visible or less visible by repeatedly pressing different keys. Fewer key presses were made to obtain better views of preferred-sex images when such images had previously been inhibited as no-go items than when previously encountered as noninhibited go items. This finding replicates prior results and is consistent with the possibility that motor-response suppression has lingering effects that include global reductions in all behavioral expression. However, for nonpreferred images, prior inhibition resulted in more key presses to obscure their visibility than when such images had not been inhibited. This novel finding suggests that the motivational consequences of response inhibition are not due to a global brake on action but are instead linked to negative changes in stimulus value that induce corresponding increases in avoidance and decreases in approach.
How visual experience impacts the internal and external spatial mapping of sensorimotor functions
Apr 22, 2017   Scientific Reports
Crollen V, Albouy G, Lepore F, Collignon O
How visual experience impacts the internal and external spatial mapping of sensorimotor functions
Apr 22, 2017
Scientific Reports
Tactile perception and motor production share the use of internally- and externally-defined coordinates. In order to examine how visual experience affects the internal/external coding of space for touch and movement, early blind (EB) and sighted controls (SC) took part in two experiments. In experiment 1, participants were required to perform a Temporal Order Judgment task (TOJ), either with their hands in parallel or crossed over the body midline. Confirming previous demonstration, crossing the hands led to a significant decrement in performance in SC but did not affect EB. In experiment 2, participants were trained to perform a sequence of five-finger movements. They were tested on their ability to produce, with the same hand but with the keypad turned upside down, the learned (internal) or the mirror (external) sequence. We observed significant transfer of motor sequence knowledge in both EB and SC irrespective of whether the representation of the sequence was internal or external. Together, these results demonstrate that visual experience differentially impacts the automatic weight attributed to internal versus external coordinates depending on task-specific spatial requirements.
Optimized CUBIC protocol for 3D imaging of chicken embryos at single-cell resolution
Apr 22, 2017   Development (Cambridge, England)
Gómez-Gaviro MV, Balaban E, Bocancea D, Lorrio MT, Pompeiano M, Desco M, Ripoll J, Vaquero JJ
Optimized CUBIC protocol for 3D imaging of chicken embryos at single-cell resolution
Apr 22, 2017
Development (Cambridge, England)
The CUBIC tissue clearing protocol has been optimized to produce translucent immunostained whole chicken embryos and embryo brains. When combined with multispectral light sheet microscopy, the validated protocol presented here provides a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method for acquiring accurate histological images that preserve three-dimensional structural relationships with single-cell-level resolution in whole early-stage chicken embryos, and in the whole brains of late-stage embryos. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Focal local field potential (LFP) signature of the single-axon monosynaptic thalamocortical connection
Apr 22, 2017   The Journal Of Neuroscience : The Official Journal Of The Society For Neuroscience
Hagen E, Fossum JC, Pettersen KH, Alonso JM, Swadlow HA, Einevolla GT
Focal local field potential (LFP) signature of the single-axon monosynaptic thalamocortical connection
Apr 22, 2017
The Journal Of Neuroscience : The Official Journal Of The Society For Neuroscience
Recent years have seen a resurgence in use of the extracellularly recorded local field potential (LFP) to investigate neural network activity. To probe monosynaptic thalamic activation of cortical postsynaptic target cells, so called spike-trigger-averaged LFP (stLFP) signatures have been measured. In these experiments the cortical LFP is measured by means of multielectrodes covering several cortical lamina and averaged on spontaneous spikes of thalamocortical (TC) cells. Using a well-established forward-modeling scheme, we investigate the biophysical origin of this stLFP signature with simultaneous synaptic activation of cortical layer 4 neurons, mimicking the effect of a single afferent spike from a single TC neuron. Constrained by previously measured intracellular responses of the main postsynaptic target cell types and with biologically plausible assumptions regarding the spatial distribution of thalamic synaptic inputs into layer 4, the model predicted characteristic contributions to monosynaptic stLFP signatures both for the regular spiking (RS) excitatory neurons and the fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons. In particular, the FS cells generated stLFP signatures of shorter temporal duration than the RS cells. Added together, a sum of the stLFP signatures of these two principal synaptic targets of thalamocortical cells were observed to resemble experimentally measured stLFP signatures. Outside the volume targeted by TC afferents the resulting postsynaptic LFP signals were found to be sharply attenuated. This implies that such stLFP signatures provide a very local measure of thalamocortical synaptic activation, and that newly developed inverse CSD-estimation methods are needed for precise assessment of the underlying spatiotemporal current-source density (CSD) profiles.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTDespite its long history and prevalent use, the proper interpretation of the extracellularly recorded local field potential (LFP) is still not fully established. Here we investigate by means of biophysical modeling the origin of the focal LFP signature of the single-axon monosynaptic thalamocortical connection as measured by spike-trigger-averaging of cortical LFPs on spontaneous spikes of thalamocortical neurons. We find that this LFP signature is well accounted for by a model assuming thalamic projections to two cortical layer-4 cell populations: one excitatory (putatively regular-spiking cells) and one inhibitory (putatively fast-spiking cells). The LFP signature is observed to decay sharply outside the cortical region receiving the thalamocortical projection, implying that it indeed provides a very local measure of thalamocortical synaptic activation. Copyright © 2017 Hagen et al.
Family-centered prevention ameliorates the association between adverse childhood experiences and prediabetes status in young black adults
Apr 22, 2017   Preventive Medicine
Brody GH, Yu T, Chen E, Miller GE
Family-centered prevention ameliorates the association between adverse childhood experiences and prediabetes status in young black adults
Apr 22, 2017
Preventive Medicine
Individuals exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are vulnerable to various health problems later in life. This study was designed to determine whether participation in an efficacious program to enhance supportive parenting would ameliorate the association between ACEs and prediabetes status at age 25. Rural African American parents and their 11-year-old children (N=390) participated in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program or a control condition. Each youth at age 25 provided a total ACEs score and a blood sample from which overnight fasting glucose was assayed. Logistic regression equations were used to test the hypotheses. The logistic regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between total ACEs and random assignment to SAAF or control, OR=0.56, 95% CI [0.36, 0.88]. Follow-up analyses indicated that, for participants in the control condition, a 1-point increase in ACEs was associated with a 37.3% increase in risk of having prediabetes. ACEs were not associated with the likelihood of having prediabetes among participants in the SAAF condition. Control participants with high total ACEs scores were 3.54 times more likely to have prediabetes than were SAAF participants with similar scores. This study indicated that participation at age 11 in a randomized controlled trial designed to enhance supportive parenting ameliorated the association of ACEs with prediabetes at age 25. If substantiated, these findings may provide a strategy for preventing negative health consequences of ACEs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Corrigendum to "Individualized relapse prediction: Personality measures and striatal and insular activity during reward-processing robustly predict relapse" [Drug and Alcohol Dependence 152 (2015) 93-101]
Apr 22, 2017   Drug And Alcohol Dependence
Gowin JL, Ball TM, Wittmann M, Tapert SF, Paulus MP
Getting a grip on reality: Grasping movements directed to real objects and images rely on dissociable neural representations
Apr 22, 2017   Cortex; A Journal Devoted To The Study Of The Nervous System And Behavior
Freud E, Macdonald SN, Chen J, Quinlan DJ, Goodale MA, Culham JC
Getting a grip on reality: Grasping movements directed to real objects and images rely on dissociable neural representations
Apr 22, 2017
Cortex; A Journal Devoted To The Study Of The Nervous System And Behavior
In the current era of touchscreen technology, humans commonly execute visually guided actions directed to two-dimensional (2D) images of objects. Although real, three-dimensional (3D), objects and images of the same objects share high degree of visual similarity, they differ fundamentally in the actions that can be performed on them. Indeed, previous behavioral studies have suggested that simulated grasping of images relies on different representations than actual grasping of real 3D objects. Yet the neural underpinnings of this phenomena have not been investigated. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how brain activation patterns differed for grasping and reaching actions directed toward real 3D objects compared to images. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) revealed that the left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), a key region for visually guided grasping, discriminates between both the format in which objects were presented (real/image) and the motor task performed on them (grasping/reaching). Interestingly, during action planning, the representations of real 3D objects versus images differed more for grasping movements than reaching movements, likely because grasping real 3D objects involves fine-grained planning and anticipation of the consequences of a real interaction. Importantly, this dissociation was evident in the planning phase, before movement initiation, and was not found in any other regions, including motor and somatosensory cortices. This suggests that the dissociable representations in the left aIPS were not based on haptic, motor or proprioceptive feedback. Together, these findings provide novel evidence that actions, particularly grasping, are affected by the realness of the target objects during planning, perhaps because real targets require a more elaborate forward model based on visual cues to predict the consequences of real manipulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heterogeneous ribonuclear protein A3 (hnRNP A3) is present in dipeptide repeat protein containing inclusions in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Motor Neurone disease associated with expansions in C9orf72 gene
Apr 22, 2017   Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Davidson YS, Flood L, Robinson AC, Nihei Y, Mori K, Rollinson S, Richardson A, Benson BC, Jones M, Snowden JS, Pickering-Brown S, Haass C, Lashley T, Mann DMA
Heterogeneous ribonuclear protein A3 (hnRNP A3) is present in dipeptide repeat protein containing inclusions in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Motor Neurone disease associated with expansions in C9orf72 gene
Apr 22, 2017
Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) encompasses certain related neurodegenerative disorders which alter behaviour, personality and language. Heterogeneous ribonuclear proteins (hnRNPs) maintain RNA metabolism and changes in their function may underpin the pathogenesis of FTLD. Immunostaining for hnRNP A1, A2/B1 and A3 was performed on sections of temporal cortex with hippocampus from 61 patients with FTLD, stratified by pathological hallmarks into FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP type A, B and C subtypes, and by genetics into patients with C9orf72 expansions, MAPT or GRN mutations, or those without known mutation. Four patients with Motor Neurone Disease (MND) with C9orf72 expansions and 10 healthy controls were also studied. Semi-quantitative analysis assessed hnRNP staining intensity in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA4 region of hippocampus, and temporal cortex (Tcx) in the different pathological and genetic groups.Immunostaining for hnRNP A1, A2/B1 and A3 revealed no consistent changes in pattern or amount of physiological staining across any of the pathological or genetic groups. No immunostaining of any inclusions resembling TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions or dystrophic neurites, was seen in either Tcx or DG of the hippocampus in any of the FTLD cases investigated for hnRNP A1, A2/B1 and A3. However, immunostaining for hnRNP A3 showed that inclusion bodies, resembling those TDP-43 negative, p62-immunopositive structures containing dipeptide repeat proteins (DPR) were variably observed in hippocampus and cerebellum. The proportion of cases showing hnRNP A3-immunoreactive DPR, and the number of hnRNP A3-positive inclusions within cases, was significantly greater in DG than in cells of CA4 region and cerebellum, but the latter was significantly less in all three regions compared to that detected by p62 immunostaining.
Validation of the short version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis in multiethnic Asian older adults in Singapore
Apr 22, 2017   BMC Geriatrics
Abdin E, Vaingankar JA, Picco L, Chua BY, Prince M, Chong SA, Subramaniam M
Validation of the short version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis in multiethnic Asian older adults in Singapore
Apr 22, 2017
BMC Geriatrics
To validate the short version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis against the standard version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis and clinical diagnosis and examine concurrent validity with the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment schedule and care needs in a multiethnic Asian older adult population in Singapore. Data from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study, a nationally representative survey of the older Singapore Resident population aged 60 years and above was used. The validity of the short version of the 10/66 dementia diagnostic criteria derived from the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the modified Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer's Disease 10-word list delayed recall and the EURO-D depression screen were examined against the standard version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis and clinician diagnosis as a gold standard. Concurrent validity was tested by examining the relationships between the short version 10/66 dementia diagnosis, disability and care needs. A total of 2373 respondents who had completed data on the short version diagnosis were included in this study. The majority (82.63%) of respondents were of Chinese descent, 9.86% were Malays, 6.12% were of Indian descent and 1.39% belonged to other ethnic group. We found the short version 10/66 dementia diagnosis showed almost perfect agreement with the standard version 10/66 dementia diagnosis (kappa = 0.90, AUC = 0.96) and substantial agreement with clinical diagnosis (kappa = 0.70, AUC = 0.87). The weighted prevalence of dementia in the population was slightly higher based on the short version diagnosis than the standard version diagnosis (10.74% vs. 10.04%). We also found that those with the short version 10/66 dementia were significantly associated with higher disability (β = 28.90, 95% CI = 23.62, 9.62) and needed care occasionally (OR =35.21, 95% CI = 18.08, 68.59) or much of the time (OR = 9.02, 95% CI = 5.21, 15.61). The study found that the short version 10/66 dementia diagnosis has excellent validity to diagnose dementia in a multiethnic Asian population in Singapore. Further research is required to determine the usefulness of this diagnosis in clinical practice or institutional settings to aid early detection and intervention for dementia.
The human amygdala parametrically encodes the intensity of specific facial emotions and their categorical ambiguity
Apr 21, 2017   Nature Communications
Wang S, Yu R, Tyszka JM, Zhen S, Kovach C, Sun S, Huang Y, Hurlemann R, Ross IB, Chung JM, Mamelak AN, Adolphs R, Rutishauser U
The human amygdala parametrically encodes the intensity of specific facial emotions and their categorical ambiguity
Apr 21, 2017
Nature Communications
The human amygdala is a key structure for processing emotional facial expressions, but it remains unclear what aspects of emotion are processed. We investigated this question with three different approaches: behavioural analysis of 3 amygdala lesion patients, neuroimaging of 19 healthy adults, and single-neuron recordings in 9 neurosurgical patients. The lesion patients showed a shift in behavioural sensitivity to fear, and amygdala BOLD responses were modulated by both fear and emotion ambiguity (the uncertainty that a facial expression is categorized as fearful or happy). We found two populations of neurons, one whose response correlated with increasing degree of fear, or happiness, and a second whose response primarily decreased as a linear function of emotion ambiguity. Together, our results indicate that the human amygdala processes both the degree of emotion in facial expressions and the categorical ambiguity of the emotion shown and that these two aspects of amygdala processing can be most clearly distinguished at the level of single neurons.
Longitudinal whole-brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement in nondemented Parkinson's disease
Apr 21, 2017   Neurobiology Of Aging
Mak E, Su L, Williams GB, Firbank MJ, Lawson RA,   . . . . . .   , Brooks DJ, Rowe JB, Barker RA, Burn DJ, O'Brien JT
Longitudinal whole-brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement in nondemented Parkinson's disease
Apr 21, 2017
Neurobiology Of Aging
We investigated whole-brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement over 18 months in nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) and examined their associations with clinical measures and baseline CSF markers. PD subjects (n = 100) were classified at baseline into those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; PD-MCI, n = 36) and no cognitive impairment (PD-NC, n = 64). Percentage of whole-brain volume change (PBVC) and ventricular expansion over 18 months were assessed with FSL-SIENA and ventricular enlargement (VIENA) respectively. PD-MCI showed increased global atrophy (-1.1% ± 0.8%) and ventricular enlargement (6.9 % ± 5.2%) compared with both PD-NC (PBVC: -0.4 ± 0.5, p < 0.01; VIENA: 2.1% ± 4.3%, p < 0.01) and healthy controls. In a subset of 35 PD subjects, CSF levels of tau, and Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio were correlated with PBVC and ventricular enlargement respectively. The sample size required to demonstrate a 20% reduction in PBVC and VIENA was approximately 1/15th of that required to detect equivalent changes in cognitive decline. These findings suggest that longitudinal MRI measurements have potential to serve as surrogate markers to complement clinical assessments for future disease-modifying trials in PD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cognitive control in action: Tracking the dynamics of rule switching in 5- to 8-year-olds and adults
Apr 21, 2017   Cognition
Erb CD, Moher J, Song JH, Sobel DM
Cognitive control in action: Tracking the dynamics of rule switching in 5- to 8-year-olds and adults
Apr 21, 2017
Cognition
Recent studies have suggested that dissociable processes featuring distinct types of inhibition support cognitive control in tasks requiring participants to override a prepotent response with a control-demanding alternative response. An open question concerns how these processes support cognitive flexibility in rule-switching tasks. We used a technique known as reach tracking to investigate how 5- to 8-year-olds (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) select, maintain, and switch between incompatible rule sets in a computerized version of the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS). Our results indicate that rule switching differentially impacts two key processes underlying cognitive control in children and adults. Adult performance also revealed a strong response bias not observed in children, which complicated a direct comparison of switching between the age groups and reopens questions concerning the relation between child and adult performance on the task. We discuss these findings in the context of a contemporary model of cognitive control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dietary patterns and depression risk: A meta-analysis
Apr 21, 2017   Psychiatry Research
Li Y, Lv MR, Wei YJ, Sun L, Zhang JX, Zhang HG, Li B
Dietary patterns and depression risk: A meta-analysis
Apr 21, 2017
Psychiatry Research
Although some studies have reported potential associations of dietary patterns with depression risk, a consistent perspective hasn't been estimated to date. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the relation between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. A literature research was conducted searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to September 2016. In total, 21 studies from ten countries met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. A dietary pattern characterized by a high intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grain, fish, olive oil, low-fat dairy and antioxidants and low intakes of animal foods was apparently associated with a decreased risk of depression. A dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of red and/or processed meat, refined grains, sweets, high-fat dairy products, butter, potatoes and high-fat gravy, and low intakes of fruits and vegetables is associated with an increased risk of depression. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that healthy pattern may decrease the risk of depression, whereas western-style may increase the risk of depression. However, more randomized controlled trails and cohort studies are urgently required to confirm this findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Low activity microstates during sleep
Apr 21, 2017   Sleep
Miyawaki H, Billeh YN, Diba K
Low activity microstates during sleep
Apr 21, 2017
Sleep
To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-REM sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (262-363g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle, as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns.org.1,2. LOW states lasted longer than OFF/DOWN states and were distinguished by a subset of "LOW-active" cells. LOW activity sleep was preceded and followed by increased sharp-wave ripple (SWR) activity. We also observed decreased slow-wave activity (SWA) and sleep spindles in the hippocampal LFP and neocortical EEG upon LOW onset, with a partial rebound immediately after LOW. LOW states demonstrated activity patterns consistent with sleep, but frequently transitioned into microarousals (MAs) and showed EMG and LFP differences from small-amplitude irregular activity (SIA) during quiet waking. Their likelihood decreased within individual non-REM epochs, yet increased over the course of sleep. By analyzing data from the entorhinal cortex of rats1, as well as the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex the postsubiculum and the anterior thalamus of mice2, obtained from http://crcns.org, we confirmed that LOW states corresponded to markedly diminished activity simultaneously in all of these regions. We propose that LOW states are an important microstate within non-REM sleep that provide respite from high-activity sleep, and may serve a restorative function.
Using Multivariate Base Rates to Interpret Low Scores on an Abbreviated Battery of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System
Apr 21, 2017   Archives Of Clinical Neuropsychology : The Official Journal Of The National Academy Of Neuropsychologists
Karr JE, Garcia-Barrera MA, Holdnack JA, Iverson GL
Using Multivariate Base Rates to Interpret Low Scores on an Abbreviated Battery of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System
Apr 21, 2017
Archives Of Clinical Neuropsychology : The Official Journal Of The National Academy Of Neuropsychologists
Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests. The sample consisted of 1,050 healthy individuals (ages 16-89) from the standardization sample for the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Seven individual test scores from the Trail Making Test, Color-Word Interference Test, and Verbal Fluency Test were analyzed. Low test scores, as defined by commonly used clinical cut-offs (i.e., ≤25th, 16th, 9th, 5th, and 2nd percentiles), occurred commonly among the adult portion of the D-KEFS normative sample (e.g., 62.8% of the sample had one or more scores ≤16th percentile, 36.1% had one or more scores ≤5th percentile), and the prevalence of low scores increased with lower intelligence and fewer years of education. The multivariate base rates (BR) in this article allow clinicians to understand the normal frequency of low scores in the general population. By use of these BRs, clinicians and researchers can improve the accuracy with which they identify executive dysfunction in clinical groups, such as those with traumatic brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases.
Acute and chronic noradrenergic effects on cortical excitability in healthy humans
Apr 21, 2017   The International Journal Of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kuo HI, Paulus W, Batsikadze G, Jamil A, Kuo MF, Nitsche MA
Acute and chronic noradrenergic effects on cortical excitability in healthy humans
Apr 21, 2017
The International Journal Of Neuropsychopharmacology
Noradrenaline is a major neuromodulator in the central nervous system, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggested that acute application of selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRI) enhances cortical excitability in the human brain. However, other, such like clinical effects, usually require prolonged NRI treatment, which might go along with different physiological effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of the selective NRI reboxetine (RBX) on cortical excitability in healthy humans in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study. Sixteen subjects were assessed with different TMS measurements: motor thresholds (MTs), input-output curve (I-O curve), short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF), I-wave facilitation, and short-interval afferent inhibition (SAI) before and after placebo or RBX (8mg) single dose administration. Afterwards, the same subjects took RBX (8mg/ day) consecutively for 21 days. During this period (subjects underwent two experimental sessions with identical TMS measures under placebo or RBX), TMS measurements were assessed before and after drug intake. Both single dose and chronic administration of RBX increased cortical excitability, increased the slope of the I-O curve, ICF, and I-wave facilitation, but decreased SICI and SAI. Moreover, chronic RBX showed a larger enhancement of ICF and I-wave facilitation as compared to single dose application. The results show physiological mechanisms of noradrenergic enhancement possibly underlying the functional effects of RBX regarding acute and chronic application.
Using transcranial magnetic stimulation of the undamaged brain to identify lesion sites that predict language outcome after stroke
Apr 21, 2017   Brain : A Journal Of Neurology
Lorca-Puls DL, Gajardo-Vidal A, Seghier ML, Leff AP, Sethi V, Prejawa S, Hope TMH, Devlin JT, Price CJ
Using transcranial magnetic stimulation of the undamaged brain to identify lesion sites that predict language outcome after stroke
Apr 21, 2017
Brain : A Journal Of Neurology
Transcranial magnetic stimulation focused on either the left anterior supramarginal gyrus or opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus has been reported to transiently impair the ability to perform phonological more than semantic tasks. Here we tested whether phonological processing abilities were also impaired following lesions to these regions in right-handed, English speaking adults, who were investigated at least 1 year after a left-hemisphere stroke. When our regions of interest were limited to 0.5 cm3 of grey matter centred around sites that had been identified with transcranial magnetic stimulation-based functional localization, phonological impairments were observed in 74% (40/54) of patients with damage to the regions and 21% (21/100) of patients sparing these regions. This classification accuracy was better than that observed when using regions of interest centred on activation sites in previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of phonological processing, or transcranial magnetic stimulation sites that did not use functional localization. New regions of interest were generated by redefining the borders of each of the transcranial magnetic stimulation sites to include areas that were consistently damaged in the patients with phonological impairments. This increased the incidence of phonological impairments in the presence of damage to 85% (46/54) and also reduced the incidence of phonological impairments in the absence of damage to 15% (15/100). The difference in phonological processing abilities between those with and without damage to these 'transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided' regions remained highly significant even after controlling for the effect of lesion size. The classification accuracy of the transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided regions was validated in a second sample of 108 patients and found to be better than that for (i) functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided regions; (ii) a region identified from an unguided lesion overlap map; and (iii) a region identified from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Finally, consistent with prior findings from functional imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy participants, we show how damage to our transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided regions affected performance on phonologically more than semantically demanding tasks. The observation that phonological processing abilities were impaired years after the stroke, suggests that other brain regions were not able to fully compensate for the contribution that the transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided regions make to language tasks. More generally, our novel transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided lesion-deficit mapping approach shows how non-invasive stimulation of the healthy brain can be used to guide the identification of regions where brain damage is likely to cause persistent behavioural effects. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.
Chronic grouped social restriction triggers long-lasting immune system adaptations
Apr 21, 2017   Oncotarget
Tian R, Hou G, Song L, Zhang J, Yuan TF
Chronic grouped social restriction triggers long-lasting immune system adaptations
Apr 21, 2017
Oncotarget
Chronic stress triggers rigorous psychological and physiological changes, including immunological system adaptations. However, the effects of long-term social restriction on human immune system have not been investigated. The present study is to investigate the effect of chronic stress on immune changes in human blood, with the stress stimuli controlled.10 male volunteers were group isolated from the modern society in a 50-meter-square room for 150 days, with enriched nutrition and good living conditions provided. Serum examination of immune system markers demonstrated numerous changes in different aspects of the immune functions. The changes were observed as early as 30 days and could last for another 150 days after the termination of the restriction period (300 days' time point). The results strongly argued for the adaptation of immunological system under chronic social restriction stress in adult human, preceding a clear change in psychological conditions. The changes of these immune system factors could as well act as the serum biomarkers in clinical early-diagnosis of stress-related disorders.
A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mindfulness and Acceptance Group Therapy for Residential Substance Use Patients
Apr 21, 2017   Substance Use & Misuse
Shorey RC, Elmquist J, Gawrysiak MJ, Strauss C, Haynes E, Anderson S, Stuart GL
A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mindfulness and Acceptance Group Therapy for Residential Substance Use Patients
Apr 21, 2017
Substance Use & Misuse
Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment. Our primary outcomes were substance use cravings, psychological flexibility, and dispositional mindfulness at treatment discharge. Patients (N = 117) from a private residential substance use facility were randomized to receive the adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group or treatment-as-usual. Patients were assessed at treatment intake and at discharge from a 28-30-day residential program. Although treatment groups did not statistically differ at discharge on any primary outcome, small effect sizes favored the mindfulness and acceptance group on cravings and psychological flexibility. Conclusions/Importance: Continued research is needed to determine whether the addition of mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions improve outcomes long term following residential substance use treatment.
Evaluation of the precision of contrast sensitivity function assessment on a tablet device
Apr 21, 2017   Scientific Reports
Dorr M, Lesmes LA, Elze T, Wang H, Lu ZL, Bex PJ
Evaluation of the precision of contrast sensitivity function assessment on a tablet device
Apr 21, 2017
Scientific Reports
The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) relates the visibility of a spatial pattern to both its size and contrast, and is therefore a more comprehensive assessment of visual function than acuity, which only determines the smallest resolvable pattern size. Because of the additional dimension of contrast, estimating the CSF can be more time-consuming. Here, we compare two methods for rapid assessment of the CSF that were implemented on a tablet device. For a single-trial assessment, we asked 63 myopes and 38 emmetropes to tap the peak of a "sweep grating" on the tablet's touch screen. For a more precise assessment, subjects performed 50 trials of the quick CSF method in a 10-AFC letter recognition task. Tests were performed with and without optical correction, and in monocular and binocular conditions; one condition was measured twice to assess repeatability. Results show that both methods are highly correlated; using both common and novel measures for test-retest repeatability, however, the quick CSF delivers more precision with testing times of under three minutes. Further analyses show how a population prior can improve convergence rate of the quick CSF, and how the multi-dimensional output of the quick CSF can provide greater precision than scalar outcome measures.
Premorbid BMI predicts binge-purge symptomatology among individuals with anorexia nervosa
Apr 22, 2017   The International Journal Of Eating Disorders
Lantz EL, Gillberg C, Råstam M, Wentz E, Lowe MR
Premorbid BMI predicts binge-purge symptomatology among individuals with anorexia nervosa
Apr 22, 2017
The International Journal Of Eating Disorders
A finding consistent with the transdiagnostic approach to eating disorders is that about half of those with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN) eventually undergo a transition to the binge/purge (BP) subtype or to bulimia nervosa. Given evidence that individuals with bulimic symptoms exhibit elevated weights premorbidly, we tested the hypothesis that among those with AN, highest premorbid BMI would predict which individuals with AN would develop AN-BP. The current study used longitudinal data from a community sample of adolescents with AN in Sweden. Premorbid weights were obtained from growth charts, and participants were re-assessed at 6, 10, and 18 years after first presentation with AN. A greater highest premorbid BMI z score predicted a greater likelihood of developing binge/purge symptoms over 18 years. Among individuals who develop an eating disorder, premorbid BMI may be implicated in the type and course of the eating disorder that emerges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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