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Psychology
Yu-Tao Loo and the development of neuropsychology in China
Feb 24, 2017   Protein & Cell
Qian Y, Chen W, Wen S
A test of the diffusion model explanation for the worst performance rule using preregistration and blinding
Feb 24, 2017   Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Dutilh G, Vandekerckhove J, Ly A, Matzke D, Pedroni A, Frey R, Rieskamp J, Wagenmakers EJ
A test of the diffusion model explanation for the worst performance rule using preregistration and blinding
Feb 24, 2017
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
People with higher IQ scores also tend to perform better on elementary cognitive-perceptual tasks, such as deciding quickly whether an arrow points to the left or the right Jensen (2006). The worst performance rule (WPR) finesses this relation by stating that the association between IQ and elementary-task performance is most pronounced when this performance is summarized by people's slowest responses. Previous research has shown that the WPR can be accounted for in the Ratcliff diffusion model by assuming that the same ability parameter-drift rate-mediates performance in both elementary tasks and higher-level cognitive tasks. Here we aim to test four qualitative predictions concerning the WPR and its diffusion model explanation in terms of drift rate. In the first stage, the diffusion model was fit to data from 916 participants completing a perceptual two-choice task; crucially, the fitting happened after randomly shuffling the key variable, i.e., each participant's score on a working memory capacity test. In the second stage, after all modeling decisions were made, the key variable was unshuffled and the adequacy of the predictions was evaluated by means of confirmatory Bayesian hypothesis tests. By temporarily withholding the mapping of the key predictor, we retain flexibility for proper modeling of the data (e.g., outlier exclusion) while preventing biases from unduly influencing the results. Our results provide evidence against the WPR and suggest that it may be less robust and less ubiquitous than is commonly believed.
Norepinephrine transporter blocker atomoxetine increases salivary alpha amylase
Feb 24, 2017   Psychoneuroendocrinology
Warren CM, van den Brink RL, Nieuwenhuis S, Bosch JA
Norepinephrine transporter blocker atomoxetine increases salivary alpha amylase
Feb 24, 2017
Psychoneuroendocrinology
It has been suggested that central norepinephrine (NE) activity may be inferred from increases in salivary alpha-amylase (SAA), but data in favor of this proposition are limited. We administered 40mg of atomoxetine, a selective NE transporter blocker that increases central NE levels, to 24 healthy adult participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. Atomoxetine administration significantly increased SAA secretion and concentrations at 75-180min after treatment (more than doubling baseline levels). Consistent with evidence that elevation in central NE is a co-determinant of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, salivary cortisol also approximately doubled at the same time points. Moreover, changes in salivary cortisol positively correlated with SAA (0.44
Between mind and heart: sex-based cognitive bias in cardiovascular disease treatment
Feb 24, 2017   Frontiers In Neuroendocrinology
Kentner AC, Grace SL
Between mind and heart: sex-based cognitive bias in cardiovascular disease treatment
Feb 24, 2017
Frontiers In Neuroendocrinology
Given that both men and women experience cardiovascular disease (CVD), a common misconception is that they have similar risk factors and clinical presentation, receive comparable treatment, and have equivalent clinical outcomes; in reality differences are observed between men and women for each of these endpoints. Moreover, these differences occur as a function of both sex and gender. A review of the literature reveals widespread bias in the selection of research subjects based on sex and gender, in addition to implicit patient and provider biases that impede the access of women to recommended primary and secondary CVD management. In this perspective, we identify strategies to eliminate such biases and improve women's access to CVD treatments to ensure their care is consistent with current guidelines.Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mapping Visual Dominance in Human Sleep
Feb 24, 2017   NeuroImage
McAvoy M, Mitra A, Tagliazucchi E, Laufs H, Raichle ME
Mapping Visual Dominance in Human Sleep
Feb 24, 2017
NeuroImage
Sleep is a universal behavior, essential for humans and animals alike to survive. Its importance to a person's physical and mental health cannot be overstated. Although lateralization of function is well established in the lesion, split-brain and task based neuroimaging literature, and more recently in functional imaging studies of spontaneous fluctuations of the fMRI BOLD signal during wakeful rest, it is unknown if these asymmetries are present during sleep. We investigated hemispheric asymmetries in the global brain signal during non-REM sleep. Here we show that increasing sleep depth is accompanied by an increasing rightward asymmetry of regions in visual cortex including primary bilaterally and in the right hemisphere along the lingual gyrus and middle temporal cortex. In addition, left hemisphere language regions largely maintained their leftward asymmetry during sleep. Right hemisphere attention related regions expressed a more complicated relation with some regions maintaining a rightward asymmetry while this was lost in others. These results suggest that asymmetries in the human brain are state dependent.Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Genetic predisposition to advanced biological ageing increases risk for childhood-onset recurrent major depressive disorder in a large UK sample
Feb 24, 2017   Journal Of Affective Disorders
Michalek JE, Kepa A, Vincent J, Frissa S, Goodwin L, Hotopf M, Hatch SL, Breen G, Powell TR
Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions: A position paper
Feb 24, 2017   Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal Of The International Federation Of Clinical Neurophysiology
Thut G, Bergmann TO, Fröhlich F, Soekadar SR, Brittain JS, Valero-Cabré A, Sack A, Miniussi C, Antal A, Siebner HR, Ziemann U, Herrmann CS
Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions: A position paper
Feb 24, 2017
Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal Of The International Federation Of Clinical Neurophysiology
Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques have a wide range of applications but also suffer from a number of limitations mainly related to poor specificity of intervention and variable effect size. These limitations motivated recent efforts to focus on the temporal dimension of NTBS with respect to the ongoing brain activity. Temporal patterns of ongoing neuronal activity, in particular brain oscillations and their fluctuations, can be traced with electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), to guide the timing as well as the stimulation settings of NTBS. These novel, online and offline EEG/MEG-guided NTBS-approaches are tailored to specifically interact with the underlying brain activity. Online EEG/MEG has been used to guide the timing of NTBS (i.e., when to stimulate): by taking into account instantaneous phase or power of oscillatory brain activity, NTBS can be aligned to fluctuations in excitability states. Moreover, offline EEG/MEG recordings prior to interventions can inform researchers and clinicians how to stimulate: by frequency-tuning NTBS to the oscillation of interest, intrinsic brain oscillations can be up- or down-regulated. In this paper, we provide an overview of existing approaches and ideas of EEG/MEG-guided interventions, and their promises and caveats. We point out potential future lines of research to address challenges.Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Increased 4R tau expression and behavioural changes in a novel MAPT-N296H genomic mouse model of tauopathy
Feb 24, 2017   Scientific Reports
Wobst HJ, Denk F, Oliver PL, Livieratos A, Taylor TN, Knudsen MH, Bengoa-Vergniory N, Bannerman D, Wade-Martins R
Increased 4R tau expression and behavioural changes in a novel MAPT-N296H genomic mouse model of tauopathy
Feb 24, 2017
Scientific Reports
The microtubule-associated protein tau is implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, which are characterized by intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. Mutations in the tau gene MAPT cause frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). In the human central nervous system, six tau isoforms are expressed, and imbalances in tau isoform ratios are associated with pathology. To date, few animal models of tauopathy allow for the potential influence of these protein isoforms, relying instead on cDNA-based transgene expression. Using the P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) technology, we created mouse lines expressing all six tau isoforms from the human MAPT locus, harbouring either the wild-type sequence or the disease-associated N296H mutation on an endogenous Mapt-/- background. Animals expressing N296H mutant tau recapitulated early key features of tauopathic disease, including a tau isoform imbalance and tau hyperphosphorylation in the absence of somatodendritic tau inclusions. Furthermore, N296H animals displayed behavioural anomalies such as hyperactivity, increased time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and increased immobility during the tail suspension test. The mouse models described provide an excellent model to study the function of wild-type or mutant tau in a highly physiological setting.
Feature-based attentional weighting and spreading in visual working memory
Feb 24, 2017   Scientific Reports
Niklaus M, Nobre AC, van Ede F
Feature-based attentional weighting and spreading in visual working memory
Feb 24, 2017
Scientific Reports
Attention can be directed at features and feature dimensions to facilitate perception. Here, we investigated whether feature-based-attention (FBA) can also dynamically weight feature-specific representations within multi-feature objects held in visual working memory (VWM). Across three experiments, participants retained coloured arrows in working memory and, during the delay, were cued to either the colour or the orientation dimension. We show that directing attention towards a feature dimension (1) improves the performance in the cued feature dimension at the expense of the uncued dimension, (2) is more efficient if directed to the same rather than to different dimensions for different objects, and (3) at least for colour, automatically spreads to the colour representation of non-attended objects in VWM. We conclude that FBA also continues to operate on VWM representations (with similar principles that govern FBA in the perceptual domain) and challenge the classical view that VWM representations are stored solely as integrated objects.
Gait improvement via rhythmic stimulation in Parkinson's disease is linked to rhythmic skills
Feb 24, 2017   Scientific Reports
Bella SD, Benoit CE, Farrugia N, Keller PE, Obrig H, Mainka S, Kotz SA
Gait improvement via rhythmic stimulation in Parkinson's disease is linked to rhythmic skills
Feb 24, 2017
Scientific Reports
Training based on rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) can improve gait in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Patients typically walk faster and exhibit greater stride length after RAS. However, this effect is highly variable among patients, with some exhibiting little or no response to the intervention. These individual differences may depend on patients' ability to synchronize their movements to a beat. To test this possibility, 14 IPD patients were submitted to RAS for four weeks, in which they walked to music with an embedded metronome. Before and after the training, patients' synchronization was assessed with auditory paced hand tapping and walking to auditory cues. Patients increased gait speed and stride length in non-cued gait after training. However, individual differences were apparent as some patients showed a positive response to RAS and others, either no response, or a negative response. A positive response to RAS was predicted by the synchronization performance in hand tapping and gait tasks. More severe gait impairment, low synchronization variability, and a prompt response to a stimulation change foster a positive response to RAS training. Thus, sensorimotor timing skills underpinning the synchronization of steps to an auditory cue may allow predicting the success of RAS in IPD.
CRHR1 promoter hypomethylation: An epigenetic readout of panic disorder?
Feb 24, 2017   European Neuropsychopharmacology : The Journal Of The European College Of Neuropsychopharmacology
Schartner C, Ziegler C, Schiele MA, Kollert L, Weber H, Zwanzger P, Arolt V, Pauli P, Deckert J, Reif A, Domschke K
CRHR1 promoter hypomethylation: An epigenetic readout of panic disorder?
Feb 24, 2017
European Neuropsychopharmacology : The Journal Of The European College Of Neuropsychopharmacology
The corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) is crucially involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and thus a major regulator of the stress response. CRHR1 gene variation is associated with several mental disorders including anxiety disorders. Studies in rodents have demonstrated epigenetic regulation of CRHR1 gene expression to moderate response to stressful environment. In the present study, we investigated CRHR1 promoter methylation for the first time regarding its role in panic disorder applying a case-control approach (N=131 patients, N=131 controls). In an independent sample of healthy volunteers (N=255), CRHR1 methylation was additionally analyzed for association with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) score as a dimensional panic-related intermediate phenotype. The functional relevance of altered CRHR1 promoter methylation was investigated by means of luciferase-based reporter gene assays. In panic disorder patients, a significantly decreased CRHR1 methylation was discerned (p
General and emotion-specific neural effects of ketamine during emotional memory formation
Feb 24, 2017   NeuroImage
Becker B, Steffens M, Zhao Z, Kendrick KM, Neumann C, Weber B, Schultz J, Mehta MA, Ettinger U, Hurlemann R
General and emotion-specific neural effects of ketamine during emotional memory formation
Feb 24, 2017
NeuroImage
Animal studies suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dependent signalling in limbic and prefrontal regions is critically involved in both cognitive and emotional functions. In humans, ketamine-induced transient, and disorder associated chronic NMDAR hypofunction (i.e. in schizophrenia) has been associated with deficient performance in the domains of memory and higher-order emotional functioning, as well as altered neural activity in the underlying limbic-prefrontal circuits. To model the effects of NMDAR hypofunction on the integration of emotion and cognition the present pharmacological fMRI study applied the NMDAR antagonist ketamine (target plasma level = 100ng/ml) to 21 healthy volunteers in a within-subject placebo-controlled crossover design during encoding of neutral, positive and negative pictures. Our results show that irrespective of emotion, ketamine suppressed parahippocampal and medial prefrontal activity. In contrast, ketamine selectively increased amygdala and orbitofrontal activity during successful encoding of negative stimuli. On the network level ketamine generally increased medial prefrontal-parahippocampal coupling while specifically decreasing amygdala-orbitofrontal interplay during encoding of negative stimuli. On the behavioural level, ketamine produced generally decreased memory performance and abolished the emotional enhancement of memory after a wash-out period of 5 days. The present findings suggest that ketamine produces general as well as valence-specific effects during emotional memory formation. The pattern partly overlaps with alterations previously observed in patients with schizophrenia.Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Improving data availability for brain image biobanking in healthy subjects: practice-based suggestions from an international multidisciplinary working group
Feb 24, 2017   NeuroImage
BRAINS (Brain Imaging in Normal Subjects) Expert Working Group, Shenkin SD, Pernet C, Nichols TE, Poline JB,   . . . . . .   , Anblagan D, Job DE, Alexander Dickie D, Rodriguez D, Wardlaw JM
Improving data availability for brain image biobanking in healthy subjects: practice-based suggestions from an international multidisciplinary working group
Feb 24, 2017
NeuroImage
Brain imaging is now ubiquitous in clinical practice and research. The case for bringing together large amounts of image data from well-characterised healthy subjects and those with a range of common brain diseases across the life course is now compelling. This report follows a meeting of international experts from multiple disciplines, all interested in brain image biobanking. The meeting included neuroimaging experts (clinical and non-clinical), computer scientists, epidemiologists, clinicians, ethicists, and lawyers involved in creating brain image banks. The meeting followed a structured format to discuss current and emerging brain image banks; applications such as atlases; conceptual and statistical problems (e.g. defining 'normality'); legal, ethical and technological issues (e.g. consents, potential for data linkage, data security, harmonisation, data storage and enabling of research data sharing). We summarise the lessons learned from the experiences of a wide range of individual image banks, and provide practical recommendations to enhance creation, use and reuse of neuroimaging data. Our aim is to maximise the benefit of the image data, provided voluntarily by research participants and funded by many organisations, for human health. Our ultimate vision is of a federated network of brain image biobanks accessible for large studies of brain structure and function.Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Building better biomarkers: brain models in translational neuroimaging
Feb 23, 2017   Nature Neuroscience Add nature.com free-link Cancel
Woo CW, Chang LJ, Lindquist MA, Wager TD
Building better biomarkers: brain models in translational neuroimaging
Feb 23, 2017
Nature Neuroscience
Despite its great promise, neuroimaging has yet to substantially impact clinical practice and public health. However, a developing synergy between emerging analysis techniques and data-sharing initiatives has the potential to transform the role of neuroimaging in clinical applications. We review the state of translational neuroimaging and outline an approach to developing brain signatures that can be shared, tested in multiple contexts and applied in clinical settings. The approach rests on three pillars: (i) the use of multivariate pattern-recognition techniques to develop brain signatures for clinical outcomes and relevant mental processes; (ii) assessment and optimization of their diagnostic value; and (iii) a program of broad exploration followed by increasingly rigorous assessment of generalizability across samples, research contexts and populations. Increasingly sophisticated models based on these principles will help to overcome some of the obstacles on the road from basic neuroscience to better health and will ultimately serve both basic and applied goals.
Computational approaches to fMRI analysis
Feb 23, 2017   Nature Neuroscience Add nature.com free-link Cancel
Cohen JD, Daw N, Engelhardt B, Hasson U, Li K, Niv Y, Norman KA, Pillow J, Ramadge PJ, Turk-Browne NB, Willke TL
Computational approaches to fMRI analysis
Feb 23, 2017
Nature Neuroscience
Analysis methods in cognitive neuroscience have not always matched the richness of fMRI data. Early methods focused on estimating neural activity within individual voxels or regions, averaged over trials or blocks and modeled separately in each participant. This approach mostly neglected the distributed nature of neural representations over voxels, the continuous dynamics of neural activity during tasks, the statistical benefits of performing joint inference over multiple participants and the value of using predictive models to constrain analysis. Several recent exploratory and theory-driven methods have begun to pursue these opportunities. These methods highlight the importance of computational techniques in fMRI analysis, especially machine learning, algorithmic optimization and parallel computing. Adoption of these techniques is enabling a new generation of experiments and analyses that could transform our understanding of some of the most complex-and distinctly human-signals in the brain: acts of cognition such as thoughts, intentions and memories.
Studying neuroanatomy using MRI
Feb 23, 2017   Nature Neuroscience Add nature.com free-link Cancel
Lerch JP, van der Kouwe AJ, Raznahan A, Paus T, Johansen-Berg H, Miller KL, Smith SM, Fischl B, Sotiropoulos SN
Studying neuroanatomy using MRI
Feb 23, 2017
Nature Neuroscience
The study of neuroanatomy using imaging enables key insights into how our brains function, are shaped by genes and environment, and change with development, aging and disease. Developments in MRI acquisition, image processing and data modeling have been key to these advances. However, MRI provides an indirect measurement of the biological signals we aim to investigate. Thus, artifacts and key questions of correct interpretation can confound the readouts provided by anatomical MRI. In this review we provide an overview of the methods for measuring macro- and mesoscopic structure and for inferring microstructural properties; we also describe key artifacts and confounds that can lead to incorrect conclusions. Ultimately, we believe that, although methods need to improve and caution is required in interpretation, structural MRI continues to have great promise in furthering our understanding of how the brain works.
Effect of Age on Attentional Control in Dual-Tasking
Feb 23, 2017   Experimental Aging Research
Bier B, Lecavalier NC, Malenfant D, Peretz I, Belleville S
Effect of Age on Attentional Control in Dual-Tasking
Feb 23, 2017
Experimental Aging Research
Background/Study Context: The age-related differences in divided attention and attentional control have been associated with several negative outcomes later in life. However, numerous questions remain unanswered regarding the nature of these age differences and the role of attentional control abilities in dual-tasking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sources for age differences in dual-tasking and more specifically: (1) whether they occur because of differences in attentional control skills, or (2) whether the age-related decrement in dual-tasking is due to a general resource reduction that would affect the ability to complete any demanding task.METHODS: In two experiments, young and older adults were required to combine an auditory digit span task and a visuospatial tracking task, for which performance was individually adjusted on each task. In Experiment 1, attentional control skills were measured by instructing participants to deliberately vary attentional priority between the two tasks. In Experiment 2, resource availability was measured by varying the level of difficulty of the visuospatial tracking task in a parametric manner by increasing the speed of the target to be tracked. RESULTS: Both experiments confirmed the presence of a larger dual-task cost in older adults than in young adults. In Experiment 1, older participants were unable to vary their performance according to task instructions compared with younger adults. Experiment 2 showed that the age-related difference in dual-task cost was not amplified by a variation in difficulty. CONCLUSION: A marked age-related difference was found in the ability to control attentional focus in response to task instructions. However, increasing resource demand in a parametric manner does not increase the age-related differences in dual-tasking, suggesting that the difficulties experienced by older adults cannot be entirely accounted for by an increased competition for resources. A reduction in attentional control skills is proposed to account for the divided attention deficit reported in aging.
Prevalence of and factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse with regular and nonregular male sexual partners among newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men in China
Feb 23, 2017   HIV Medicine
Wang Z, Wu X, Lau J, Mo P, Mak W, Wang X, Yang X, Gross D, Jiang H
Prevalence of and factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse with regular and nonregular male sexual partners among newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men in China
Feb 23, 2017
HIV Medicine
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of, and multi-dimensional factors associated with, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with regular male sexual partners ('regular partners') and nonregular male sexual partners ('nonregular partners') among newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chengdu, China. METHODS: A total of 225 newly diagnosed HIV-positive MSM were interviewed using a combined interviewer-computer-assisted method in Chengdu, China. RESULTS: The prevalence of UAI with regular and nonregular partners since diagnosis was 27.7% and 33.8% among participants reporting having sex with regular and nonregular partners (n = 159 and 133), respectively. Adjusted analysis showed that: (1) cognitive variables based on the Health Belief Model (perceived susceptibility to HIV transmission and perceived severity of the consequences of HIV transmission, perceived barriers and perceived self-efficacy related to consistent condom use), (2) emotion-related variables (worry about transmitting HIV to others), (3) psychological factors (post-traumatic growth) and (4) socio-structural factors (perceived partners' responsibility for condom use) were significantly associated with UAI with regular and/or nonregular partners. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are warranted, and should be designed with consideration of multi-dimensional factors and be partner type-specific. © 2017 British HIV Association.
Cooperation, decision time, and culture: Online experiments with American and Indian participants
Feb 23, 2017   PloS One
Nishi A, Christakis NA, Rand DG
Cooperation, decision time, and culture: Online experiments with American and Indian participants
Feb 23, 2017
PloS One
Two separate bodies of work have examined whether culture affects cooperation in economic games and whether cooperative or non-cooperative decisions occur more quickly. Here, we connect this work by exploring the relationship between decision time and cooperation in American versus Indian subjects. We use a series of dynamic social network experiments in which subjects play a repeated public goods game: 80 sessions for a total of 1,462 subjects (1,059 from the United States, 337 from India, and 66 from other countries) making 13,560 decisions. In the first round, where subjects do not know if connecting neighbors are cooperative, American subjects are highly cooperative and decide faster when cooperating than when defecting, whereas a majority of Indian subjects defect and Indians decide faster when defecting than when cooperating. Almost the same is true in later rounds where neighbors were previously cooperative (a cooperative environment) except decision time among Indian subjects. However, when connecting neighbors were previously not cooperative (a non-cooperative environment), a large majority of both American and Indian subjects defect, and defection is faster than cooperation among both sets of subjects. Our results imply the cultural background of subjects in their real life affects the speed of cooperation decision-making differentially in online social environments.
Effects of tDCS on motor learning and memory formation: A consensus and critical position paper
Feb 23, 2017   Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal Of The International Federation Of Clinical Neurophysiology
Buch ER, Santarnecchi E, Antal A, Born J, Celnik PA,   . . . . . .   , Sandrini M, Schambra HM, Wassermann EM, Ziemann U, Cohen LG
Effects of tDCS on motor learning and memory formation: A consensus and critical position paper
Feb 23, 2017
Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal Of The International Federation Of Clinical Neurophysiology
Motor skills are required for activities of daily living. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied in association with motor skill learning has been investigated as a tool for enhancing training effects in health and disease. Here, we review the published literature investigating whether tDCS can facilitate the acquisition, retention or adaptation of motor skills. Work in multiple laboratories is underway to develop a mechanistic understanding of tDCS effects on different forms of learning and to optimize stimulation protocols. Efforts are required to improve reproducibility and standardization. Overall, reproducibility remains to be fully tested, effect sizes with present techniques vary over a wide range, and the basis of observed inter-individual variability in tDCS effects is incompletely understood. It is recommended that future studies explicitly state in the Methods the exploratory (hypothesis-generating) or hypothesis-driven (confirmatory) nature of the experimental designs. General research practices could be improved with prospective pre-registration of hypothesis-based investigations, more emphasis on the detailed description of methods (including all pertinent details to enable future modeling of induced current and experimental replication), and use of post-publication open data repositories. A checklist is proposed for reporting tDCS investigations in a way that can improve efforts to assess reproducibility.Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Intervention planning for a digital intervention for self-management of hypertension: a theory-, evidence- and person-based approach
Feb 24, 2017   Implementation Science : IS
Band R, Bradbury K, Morton K, May C, Michie S, Mair FS, Murray E, McManus RJ, Little P, Yardley L
Intervention planning for a digital intervention for self-management of hypertension: a theory-, evidence- and person-based approach
Feb 24, 2017
Implementation Science : IS
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the intervention planning process for the Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP), a digital intervention to promote hypertension self-management. It illustrates how a Person-Based Approach can be integrated with theory- and evidence-based approaches. The Person-Based Approach to intervention development emphasises the use of qualitative research to ensure that the intervention is acceptable, persuasive, engaging and easy to implement. METHODS: Our intervention planning process comprised two parallel, integrated work streams, which combined theory-, evidence- and person-based elements. The first work stream involved collating evidence from a mixed methods feasibility study, a systematic review and a synthesis of qualitative research. This evidence was analysed to identify likely barriers and facilitators to uptake and implementation as well as design features that should be incorporated in the HOME BP intervention. The second work stream used three complementary approaches to theoretical modelling: developing brief guiding principles for intervention design, causal modelling to map behaviour change techniques in the intervention onto the Behaviour Change Wheel and Normalisation Process Theory frameworks, and developing a logic model. RESULTS: The different elements of our integrated approach to intervention planning yielded important, complementary insights into how to design the intervention to maximise acceptability and ease of implementation by both patients and health professionals. From the primary and secondary evidence, we identified key barriers to overcome (such as patient and health professional concerns about side effects of escalating medication) and effective intervention ingredients (such as providing in-person support for making healthy behaviour changes). Our guiding principles highlighted unique design features that could address these issues (such as online reassurance and procedures for managing concerns). Causal modelling ensured that all relevant behavioural determinants had been addressed, and provided a complete description of the intervention. Our logic model linked the hypothesised mechanisms of action of our intervention to existing psychological theory. CONCLUSION: Our integrated approach to intervention development, combining theory-, evidence- and person-based approaches, increased the clarity, comprehensiveness and confidence of our theoretical modelling and enabled us to ground our intervention in an in-depth understanding of the barriers and facilitators most relevant to this specific intervention and user population.
Framework for the design and delivery of organized physical activity sessions for children and adolescents: rationale and description of the 'SAAFE' teaching principles
Feb 24, 2017   The International Journal Of Behavioral Nutrition And Physical Activity
Lubans DR, Lonsdale C, Cohen K, Eather N, Beauchamp MR, Morgan PJ, Sylvester BD, Smith JJ
Framework for the design and delivery of organized physical activity sessions for children and adolescents: rationale and description of the 'SAAFE' teaching principles
Feb 24, 2017
The International Journal Of Behavioral Nutrition And Physical Activity
The economic burden of inactivity is substantial, with conservative estimates suggesting the global cost to health care systems is more than US$50 billion. School-based programs, including physical education and school sport, have been recommended as important components of a multi-sector, multi-system approach to address physical inactivity. Additionally, community sporting clubs and after-school programs (ASPs) offer further opportunities for young people to be physically active outside of school. Despite demonstrating promise, current evidence suggests school-based physical activity programs, community sporting clubs and ASPs are not achieving their full potential. For example, physical activity levels in physical education (PE) and ASP sessions are typically much lower than recommended. For these sessions to have the strongest effects on young people's physical activity levels and their on-going physical literacy, they need to improve in quality and should be highly active and engaging. This paper presents the Supportive, Active, Autonomous, Fair, Enjoyable (SAAFE) principles, which represent an evidence-based framework designed to guide the planning, delivery and evaluation of organized physical activity sessions in school, community sport and ASPs. In this paper we provide a narrative and integrative review of the conceptual and empirical bases that underpin this framework and highlight implications for knowledge translation and application.
Default mode network deactivation to smoking cue relative to food cue predicts treatment outcome in nicotine use disorder
Feb 23, 2017   Addiction Biology
Wilcox CE, Claus ED, Calhoun VD, Rachakonda S, Littlewood RA, Mickey J, Arenella PB, Goodreau N, Hutchison KE
Default mode network deactivation to smoking cue relative to food cue predicts treatment outcome in nicotine use disorder
Feb 23, 2017
Addiction Biology
Identifying predictors of treatment outcome for nicotine use disorders (NUDs) may help improve efficacy of established treatments, like varenicline. Brain reactivity to drug stimuli predicts relapse risk in nicotine and other substance use disorders in some studies. Activity in the default mode network (DMN) is affected by drug cues and other palatable cues, but its clinical significance is unclear. In this study, 143 individuals with NUD (male n = 91, ages 18-55 years) received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during a visual cue task during which they were presented with a series of smoking-related or food-related video clips prior to randomization to treatment with varenicline (n = 80) or placebo. Group independent components analysis was utilized to isolate the DMN, and temporal sorting was used to calculate the difference between the DMN blood-oxygen-level dependent signal during smoke cues and that during food cues for each individual. Food cues were associated with greater deactivation compared with smoke cues in the DMN. In correcting for baseline smoking and other clinical variables, which have been shown to be related to treatment outcome in previous work, a less positive Smoke - Food difference score predicted greater smoking at 6 and 12 weeks when both treatment groups were combined (P = 0.005, β = -0.766). An exploratory analysis of executive control and salience networks demonstrated that a more positive Smoke - Food difference score for executive control network predicted a more robust response to varenicline relative to placebo. These findings provide further support to theories that brain reactivity to palatable cues, and in particular in DMN, may have a direct clinical relevance in NUD.© 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder associate with addiction
Feb 23, 2017   Addiction Biology
Reginsson GW, Ingason A, Euesden J, Bjornsdottir G, Olafsson S,   . . . . . .   , Steinberg S, Stefansson H, Gudbjartsson DF, Thorgeirsson TE, Stefansson K
Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder associate with addiction
Feb 23, 2017
Addiction Biology
We use polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) to predict smoking, and addiction to nicotine, alcohol or drugs in individuals not diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Using PRSs for 144 609 subjects, including 10 036 individuals admitted for in-patient addiction treatment and 35 754 smokers, we find that diagnoses of various substance use disorders and smoking associate strongly with PRSs for SCZ (P = 5.3 × 10© 2017 Decode genetics EHF. Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Impulse control disorders and levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: an update
Feb 23, 2017   The Lancet. Neurology
Voon V, Napier TC, Frank MJ, Sgambato-Faure V, Grace AA, Rodriguez-Oroz M, Obeso J, Bezard E, Fernagut PO
Impulse control disorders and levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: an update
Feb 23, 2017
The Lancet. Neurology
Dopaminergic medications used in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease are associated with motor and non-motor behavioural side-effects, such as dyskinesias and impulse control disorders also known as behavioural addictions. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias occur in up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's after a few years of chronic treatment. Impulse control disorders, including gambling disorder, binge eating disorder, compulsive sexual behaviour, and compulsive shopping occur in about 17% of patients with Parkinson's disease on dopamine agonists. These behaviours reflect the interactions of the dopaminergic medications with the individual's susceptibility, and the underlying neurobiology of Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonian rodent models show enhanced reinforcing effects of chronic dopaminergic medication, and a potential role for individual susceptibility. In patients with Parkinson's disease and impulse control disorders, impairments are observed across subtypes of decisional impulsivity, possibly reflecting uncertainty and the relative balance of rewards and losses. Impairments appear to be more specific to decisional than motor impulsivity, which might reflect differences in ventral and dorsal striatal engagement. Emerging evidence suggests impulse control disorder subtypes have dissociable correlates, which indicate that individual susceptibility predisposes towards the expression of different behavioural subtypes and neurobiological substrates. Therapeutic interventions to treat patients with Parkinson's disease and impulse control disorders have shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials. Large-scale studies are warranted to identify individual risk factors and novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. Mechanisms underlying impulse control disorders and dyskinesias could provide crucial insights into other behavioural symptoms in Parkinson's disease and addictions in the general population.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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