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Neuroscience
Inhibitory surrounds of motion mechanisms revealed by continuous tracking.
Dec 11, 2018   Journal Of Vision
Bhat A, Cicchini GM, Burr DC
Inhibitory surrounds of motion mechanisms revealed by continuous tracking.
Dec 11, 2018
Journal Of Vision
Continuous psychophysics is a newly developed technique that allows rapid estimation of visual thresholds by asking subjects to track a moving object, then deriving the integration window underlying tracking behavior (Bonnen, Burge, Yates, Pillow, & Cormack, 2015). Leveraging the continuous flow of stimuli and responses, continuous psychophysics allows for estimation of psychophysical thresholds in as little as 1 min. To date this technique has been applied only to tracking visual objects, where it has been used to measure localization thresholds. Here we adapt the technique to visual motion discrimination, by displaying a drifting grating that changes direction on a binary random walk and asking participants to continuously report drift direction by alternate key press. This technique replicates and confirms well-known findings of the motion-perception system. It also proves particularly valuable in demonstrating induced motion, reinforcing evidence for the existence of antagonistic surround fields. At low contrasts, the surround summates with the center, rather than opposing it, again consistent with existing evidence on classical techniques. The user-friendliness and efficiency of the method may lend it to clinical and developmental work.
OVA-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation Mouse Model.
Dec 11, 2018   Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Casaro M, Souza VR, Oliveira FA, Ferreira CM
OVA-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation Mouse Model.
Dec 11, 2018
Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Asthma is a worldwide public health issue, affecting the sufferer's quality of life. Many researchers are extensively studying the cellular processes involved in the affected airways. Experimental asthma using animals has been performed for a long time, mainly applying murine models due to well-known advantages. The aim of this study is to present an allergic airway inflammation protocol in mice. Basically, the allergic airway inflammation is induced by intraperitoneal sensitization and intratracheal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). The model provided here mimics acute asthma characteristics including excessive mucus production, airway hyperresponsiveness, and eosinophilic airway inflammation.
Children engage in competitive altruism.
Dec 13, 2018   Journal Of Experimental Child Psychology
Herrmann E, Engelmann JM, Tomasello M
Children engage in competitive altruism.
Dec 13, 2018
Journal Of Experimental Child Psychology
Humans cultivate their reputations as good cooperators, sometimes even competing with group mates, to appear most cooperative to individuals during the process of selecting partners. To investigate the ontogenetic origins of such "competitive altruism," we presented 5- and 8-year-old children with a dyadic sharing game in which both children simultaneously decided how many rewards to share with each other. The children were either observed by a third-person peer or not. In addition, the children either knew that one of them would be picked for a subsequent collaborative game or had no such knowledge. We found that by 8 years of age, children were more generous in the sharing game not only when their behavior was observed by a third party but also when it could affect their chances of being chosen for a subsequent game. This is the first demonstration of competitive altruism in young children, and as such it underscores the important role of partner choice (and individual awareness of the process) in encouraging human cooperation from an early age.
Neural architecture supporting active emotion processing in children: A multivariate approach.
Dec 11, 2018   NeuroImage
Camacho MC, Karim HT, Perlman SB
Neural architecture supporting active emotion processing in children: A multivariate approach.
Dec 11, 2018
NeuroImage
BACKGROUND: Adaptive emotion processing is critical for nearly all aspects of social and emotional functioning. There are distinct developmental trajectories associated with improved emotion processing, with a protracted developmental course for negative or complex emotions. The specific changes in neural circuitry that underlie this development, however are still scarcely understood. We employed a multivariate approach in order to elucidate distinctions in complex, naturalistic emotion processing between childhood and adulthood. METHOD: Twenty-one adults (M±SD age = 26.57 ± 5.08 years) and thirty children (age = 7.75 ± 1.80 years) completed a free-viewing movie task during BOLD fMRI scanning. This task was designed to assess naturalistic processing of movie clips portraying positive, negative, and neutral emotions. Multivariate support vector machines (SVM) were trained to classify age groups based on neural activation during the task. RESULTS: SVMs were able to successfully classify condition (positive, negative, and neutral) across all participants with high accuracy (61.44%). SVMs could successfully distinguish adults and children within each condition (ps 
Age-related differences in task-induced brain activation is not task specific: Multivariate pattern generalization between metacognition, cognition and perception.
Dec 11, 2018   NeuroImage
Keulers EHH, Birkisdóttir MB, Falbo L, de Bruin A, Stiers PLJ
Age-related differences in task-induced brain activation is not task specific: Multivariate pattern generalization between metacognition, cognition and perception.
Dec 11, 2018
NeuroImage
Adolescence is associated with widespread maturation of brain structures and functional connectivity profiles that shift from local to more distributed and better integrated networks, which are active during a variety of cognitive tasks. Nevertheless, the approach to examine task-induced developmental brain changes is function-specific, leaving the question open whether functional maturation is specific to the particular cognitive demands of the task used, or generalizes across different tasks. In the present study we examine the hypothesis that functional brain maturation is driven by global changes in how the brain handles cognitive demands. Multivariate pattern classification analysis (MVPA) was used to examine whether age discriminative task-induced activation patterns generalize across a wide range of information processing levels. 25 young (13-years old) and 22 old (17-years old) adolescents performed three conceptually different tasks of metacognition, cognition and visual processing. MVPA applied within each task indicated that task-induced brain activation is consistent and reliably different between ages 13 and 17. These age-discriminative activation patterns proved to be common across the different tasks used, despite the differences in cognitive demands and brain structures engaged by each of the three tasks. MVP classifiers trained to detect age-discriminative patterns in brain activation during one task were significantly able to decode age from brain activation maps during execution of other tasks with accuracies between 63 and 75%. The results emphasize that age-specific characteristics of task-induced brain activation have to be understood at the level of brain-wide networks that show maturational changes in their organization and processing efficacy during adolescence.
Fluid and PET biomarkers for amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.
Dec 11, 2018   Molecular And Cellular Neurosciences
Cohen AD, Landau SM, Snitz BE, Klunk WE, Blennow K, Zetterberg H
Fluid and PET biomarkers for amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.
Dec 11, 2018
Molecular And Cellular Neurosciences
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques and tau pathology (neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads). Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides ending at position 42 (Aβ42). The development of fluid and PET biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has allowed for detection of Aβ pathology in vivo and marks a major advancement in understanding the role of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the recent National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) Research Framework, AD is defined by the underlying pathology as measured in patients during life by biomarkers (Jack et al., 2018), while clinical symptoms are used for staging of the disease. Therefore, sensitive, specific and robust biomarkers to identify brain amyloidosis are central in AD research. Here, we discuss fluid and PET biomarkers for Aβ and their application.
From nodes to networks: How methods for defining nodes influence inferences regarding network interactions.
Dec 11, 2018   Human Brain Mapping
Falco D, Chowdury A, Rosenberg DR, Diwadkar VA, Bressler SL
From nodes to networks: How methods for defining nodes influence inferences regarding network interactions.
Dec 11, 2018
Human Brain Mapping
Functional connectivity (FC) analysis of fMRI data typically rests on prior identification of network nodes from activation profiles. We compared Activation Likelihood Estimate (ALE) and the Experimentally Derived Estimate (EDE) approaches to network node identification and functional inference for both verbal and visual forms of working memory. ALE arrives at canonical activation maxima that are assumed to reliably represent peaks of brain activity underlying a psychological process (e.g., working memory). By comparison, EDEs of activation maxima are typically derived from individual participant data, and are thus sensitive to individual participant activation profiles. Here, nodes were localized by both ALE and EDE methods for each participant, and subsequently extracted time series were compared using connectivity analysis. Two sets of significance tests were performed: (1) correlations computed between nodal time series of each method were compared, and (2) correlations computed between network edges (functional connections) of each network node pair were compared. Large proportions of edge correlations significantly differed between methods. ALE effectively summarizes working memory network node locations across studies and subjects, but the sensitivity to individual functional loci suggest that EDE methods provide individualized estimates of network connectivity. We suggest that a hybrid method incorporating both ALE and EDE is optimal for network inference.
Perturbed expression pattern of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus of GluA1 C-terminal palmitoylation-deficient mice.
Dec 11, 2018   Neuropsychopharmacology Reports
Itoh M, Okuno H, Yamada D, Yamashita M, Abe M, Natsume R, Kaizuka T, Sakimura K, Hoshino M, Mishina M, Wada K, Sekiguchi M, Hayashi T
Perturbed expression pattern of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus of GluA1 C-terminal palmitoylation-deficient mice.
Dec 11, 2018
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports
BACKGROUND: AMPA receptors predominantly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. Post-translational protein S-palmitoylation of AMPA receptor GluA subunits at their C-termini reversibly controls the receptors trafficking to and from excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Excitatory inputs to neurons induce the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), including Arc, with particular spatial patterns. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus, Arc is mainly expressed in the upper (dorsal) blade at the basal state. GluA1 C-terminal palmitoylation-deficient (GluA1C811S) mice showed enhanced seizure susceptibility and disturbed synaptic plasticity without impaired gross anatomy or basal synaptic transmission. These mutant mice also exhibited an increased expression of IEG products, c-Fos and Arc proteins, in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In this report, we further analyzed excitability and Arc expression pattern in the dentate gyrus of GluA1C811S mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Electrophysiological analysis of granule neurons to measure the evoked excitatory postsynaptic current/evoked inhibitory postsynaptic current ratio revealed that excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance was normal in GluA1C811S mice. In contrast, immunohistochemical staining showed an abnormal distribution of Arc-positive cells between upper and lower (ventral) blades of the dentate gyrus in these mutant mice. These data suggest that deficiency of GluA1 palmitoylation causes perturbed neuronal inputs from the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus, which potentially underlies the excessive excitability in response to seizure-inducing stimulation. CONCLUSION: Our findings conclude that an appropriate regulation of Arc expression in the dentate gyrus, ensured by AMPA receptor palmitoylation, may be critical for stabilizing hippocampal neural circuits and may suppress excess excitation.
Freezing of gait does not modulate beta oscillations in mesial cortical motor areas.
Dec 11, 2018   Movement Disorders : Official Journal Of The Movement Disorder Society
Arens J, Storzer L, Hirschmann J, Dalal SS, Schnitzler A, Butz M
Brain structure and neurological and behavioural functioning in infants born preterm.
Dec 11, 2018   Developmental Medicine And Child Neurology
Kelly CE, Thompson DK, Cheong JL, Chen J, Olsen JE, Eeles AL, Walsh JM, Seal ML, Anderson PJ, Doyle LW, Spittle AJ
Brain structure and neurological and behavioural functioning in infants born preterm.
Dec 11, 2018
Developmental Medicine And Child Neurology
AIM: To examine: (1) relationships between brain structure, and concurrently assessed neurological and behavioural functioning, in infants born preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA; approximately 38-44wks); and (2) whether brain structure-function relationships differ between infants born very (24-29wks) and moderate-late (32-36wks) preterm. METHOD: A total of 257 infants (91 very preterm, 166 moderate-late preterm; 120 males, 137 females) had structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurological and behavioural assessments (Prechtl's general movements assessment, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale [NNNS] and Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination [HNNE]). Two hundred and sixty-three infants (90 very preterm, 173 moderate-late preterm; 131 males, 132 females) had diffusion MRI and assessments. Associations were investigated between assessment scores and global brain volumes using linear regressions, regional brain volumes using Voxel-Based Morphometry, and white matter microstructure using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. RESULTS: Suboptimal scores on some assessments were associated with lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher axial, radial, and mean diffusivities in some tracts: NNNS attention and reflexes, and HNNE total score and tone, were associated with the corpus callosum and optic radiation; NNNS quality of movement with the corona radiata; HNNE abnormal signs with several major tracts. Brain structure-function associations generally did not differ between the very and moderate-late preterm groups. INTERPRETATION: White matter microstructural alterations may be associated with suboptimal neurological and behavioural performance in some domains at TEA in infants born preterm. Brain structure-function relationships are similar for infants born very preterm and moderate-late preterm. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Brain volume is not related to neurological/behavioural function in infants born preterm at term. White matter microstructure is related to some neurological/behavioural domains at term. Brain-behaviour relationships are generally similar for infants born very preterm and moderate-late preterm.
Age-related variability in decision-making: Insights from neurochemistry.
Dec 11, 2018   Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Berry AS, Jagust WJ, Hsu M
Age-related variability in decision-making: Insights from neurochemistry.
Dec 11, 2018
Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Despite dopamine's significant role in models of value-based decision-making and findings demonstrating loss of dopamine function in aging, evidence of systematic changes in decision-making over the life span remains elusive. Previous studies attempting to resolve the neural basis of age-related alteration in decision-making have typically focused on physical age, which can be a poor proxy for age-related effects on neural systems. There is growing appreciation that aging has heterogeneous effects on distinct components of the dopamine system within subject in addition to substantial variability between subjects. We propose that some of the conflicting findings in age-related effects on decision-making may be reconciled if we can observe the underlying dopamine components within individuals. This can be achieved by incorporating in vivo imaging techniques including positron emission tomography (PET) and neuromelanin-sensitive MR. Further, we discuss how affective factors may contribute to individual differences in decision-making performance among older adults. Specifically, we propose that age-related shifts in affective attention ("positivity effect") can, in some cases, counteract the impact of altered dopamine function on specific decision-making processes, contributing to variability in findings. In an effort to provide clarity to the field and advance productive hypothesis testing, we propose ways in which in vivo dopamine imaging can be leveraged to disambiguate dopaminergic influences on decision-making, and suggest strategies for assessing individual differences in the contribution of affective attentional focus.
Description of Ovariectomy Protocol in Mice.
Dec 11, 2018   Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Souza VR, Mendes E, Casaro M, Antiorio ATFB, Oliveira FA, Ferreira CM
Description of Ovariectomy Protocol in Mice.
Dec 11, 2018
Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Estrogen and ovarian function decline are relevant characteristics of menopause period. Numerous physiological, metabolic and immunological alterations in the female body occur in the menopause period and some of these changes remain uncertain. The animal model that mimics menopause phase is an important approach to better comprehend the biological process involved in this period of women life. Ovariectomy is a procedure where ovaries are surgically excised and have been a valuable tool for understanding estrogen deficiency through animal experiments. Despite the diversity of ovariectomy protocols, the aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive guideline in performing ovariectomy in mice. Furthermore, isoflurane anesthesia system, postoperative care and surgery success evaluation will be described. We highlight that all procedures must be carried out by a qualified and trained professional, respecting ethical and safety principles.
The Y-Maze for Assessment of Spatial Working and Reference Memory in Mice.
Dec 11, 2018   Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Kraeuter AK, Guest PC, Sarnyai Z
The Y-Maze for Assessment of Spatial Working and Reference Memory in Mice.
Dec 11, 2018
Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
The Y-maze can be used to assess short term memory in mice. Spontaneous alternation, a measure of spatial working memory, can be assessed by allowing mice to explore all three arms of the maze and is driven by an innate curiosity of rodents to explore previously unvisited areas. A mouse with intact working memory, and hence intact prefrontal cortical functions, will remember the arms previously visited and show a tendency to enter a less recently visited arm. Spatial reference memory, which is underlined by the hippocampus, can also be tested by placing the test mice into the Y-maze with one arm closed off during training. After an inter-trial interval of for example 1 h, the mouse should remember which arm it has not explored previously and should visit this arm more often. This chapter describes the pre-test conditions, the materials required and the protocol for conducting and interpreting the results of these two related tests.
Early Excitatory Activity-Dependent Maturation of Somatostatin Interneurons in Cortical Layer 2/3 of Mice.
Dec 11, 2018   Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
Pan NC, Fang A, Shen C, Sun L, Wu Q, Wang X
Early Excitatory Activity-Dependent Maturation of Somatostatin Interneurons in Cortical Layer 2/3 of Mice.
Dec 11, 2018
Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
GABAergic interneurons perform distinct functions during cortical development in the mouse brain. Among the diverse GABAergic neurons present in the brain, early-born somatostatin (SST)-expressing inhibitory interneurons, which are innervated by other interneurons and local pyramidal cells (PCs), act in a neural computational role in circuitry regulation. The synapses between the SST+ interneurons and other cells form gradually during development. Here, we traced the developmental course of the electrophysiological properties of SST+ interneurons at layer 2/3 of the neocortical secondary motor area (M2) in mouse, and the synaptic connectivity between SST+ interneurons and PCs. Also, we used toxin-mediated and genetic method to suppress the activities of PCs, and demonstrate that decreasing excitatory input at early stage (before P1) rather than late stage (after P8) would delay the functional maturation of SST+ interneurons. In conclusion, our results indicate that early functional activity of PCs is crucial for the intrinsic maturation of SST+ interneurons, following which these interneurons participate in local circuitry.
The Open Field Test for Measuring Locomotor Activity and Anxiety-Like Behavior.
Dec 11, 2018   Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Kraeuter AK, Guest PC, Sarnyai Z
The Open Field Test for Measuring Locomotor Activity and Anxiety-Like Behavior.
Dec 11, 2018
Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
The open field test is used in studies of the neurobiological basis of anxiety and screening for novel drug targets and anxiolytic compounds. This test uses a camera to measure movement of the test animal in the peripheral and central zones of a 42 × 42 × 42 cm polyvinyl chloride box. This chapter describes a protocol for carrying out the open-field test for assessment of locomotion and anxiety-like behavior in mice.
Free Dyadic Social Interaction Test in Mice.
Dec 11, 2018   Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Kraeuter AK, Guest PC, Sarnyai Z
Free Dyadic Social Interaction Test in Mice.
Dec 11, 2018
Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Psychiatric disorders affect approximately one quarter of people worldwide at some point in their lifetime. This chapter provides a step-by-step guide to conduct behavioral tests in adult mice for investigations of social behavior, without the need for specific equipment. This test should allow the identification of key abnormalities in social interactions that can be followed up by targeted, more complex, behavioral analysis aimed at identification of new biomarkers and potential drug targets.
The Nest Building Test in Mice for Assessment of General Well-Being.
Dec 11, 2018   Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Kraeuter AK, Guest PC, Sarnyai Z
The Nest Building Test in Mice for Assessment of General Well-Being.
Dec 11, 2018
Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
This chapter presents a method for assessing general behavior, well-being, and sensorimotor gating. A detailed protocol is given for assessment of nest building performance in female mice using a strict scoring system. The test can be used for assessing moods and behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. It can also be useful for testing movement disorders such as Parkinson disease.
Object Burying Test for Assessment of Obsessive Compulsive Behaviors in Mice.
Dec 11, 2018   Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Kraeuter AK, Guest PC, Sarnyai Z
Object Burying Test for Assessment of Obsessive Compulsive Behaviors in Mice.
Dec 11, 2018
Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can occur in several psychiatric illnesses such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and it is more prevalent in children. This condition is characterized by repeated and apparently meaningless behaviors such as frequent hand washing, counting, tapping, and rocking. This can disrupt normal socialization and in some cases lead to self-harm. Therefore there is interest in developing more effective therapies for individuals suffering from these conditions. This chapter describes how to conduct the mouse marble burying test as a sensitive measure of compulsive behaviors.
The Forced Swim Test for Depression-Like Behavior in Rodents.
Dec 11, 2018   Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Kraeuter AK, Guest PC, Sarnyai Z
The Forced Swim Test for Depression-Like Behavior in Rodents.
Dec 11, 2018
Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
The forced swim test assesses learned helplessness, which is a feature of depression-like behavior in rodents. This test has also been used in testing the efficacy of existing and novel antidepressant drugs. It is based on the natural tendency of rodents to escape from water. Rodents are placed in a cylinder filled with water and the presumption is that those with a depression-like phenotype give up swimming earlier than those that are not depressed. Furthermore, antidepressant drugs reverse this effect. This chapter describes the basic setup and conduction of the test, along with interpretation of the results. It should be emphasized that this test should be conducted as part of a series of behavioral assessments in order to increase the accuracy of the results.
The Elevated Plus Maze Test for Measuring Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rodents.
Dec 11, 2018   Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Kraeuter AK, Guest PC, Sarnyai Z
The Elevated Plus Maze Test for Measuring Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rodents.
Dec 11, 2018
Methods In Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
The elevated plus maze test is used to measure anxiety-like behavior in rodents. It can be used to gain insight into conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other conditions marked by anxious behavior. It can also be used as a component in screening of novel compounds for anxiolytic properties. This model is based on aversion to open spaces, which is seen as the animal spending more time in the enclosed arms of the maze. This chapter describes the steps necessary for setting up and conducting the test, along with interpretation of the results.
Quantification of Positron Emission Tomography Data Using Simultaneous Estimation of the Input Function: Validation with Venous Blood and Replication of Clinical Studies.
Dec 11, 2018   Molecular Imaging And Biology : MIB : The Official Publication Of The Academy Of Molecular Imaging
Bartlett EA, Ananth M, Rossano S, Zhang M, Yang J, Lin SF, Nabulsi N, Huang Y, Zanderigo F, Parsey RV, DeLorenzo C
Quantification of Positron Emission Tomography Data Using Simultaneous Estimation of the Input Function: Validation with Venous Blood and Replication of Clinical Studies.
Dec 11, 2018
Molecular Imaging And Biology : MIB : The Official Publication Of The Academy Of Molecular Imaging
PURPOSE: To determine if one venous blood sample can substitute full arterial sampling in quantitative modeling for multiple positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers using simultaneous estimation of the input function (SIME). PROCEDURES: Participants underwent PET imaging with [11C]ABP688, [11C]CUMI-101, and [11C]DASB. Full arterial sampling and additional venous blood draws were performed for quantification with the arterial input function (AIF) and SIME using one arterial or venous (vSIME) sample. RESULTS: Venous and arterial metabolite-corrected plasma activities were within 6 % of each other at varying time points. vSIME- and AIF-derived outcome measures were in good agreement, with optimal sampling times of 12 min ([11C]ABP688), 90 min ([11C]CUMI-101), and 100 min ([11C]DASB). Simulation-based power analyses revealed that SIME required fewer subjects than the AIF method to achieve statistical power, with significant reductions for [11C]CUMI-101 and [11C]DASB with vSIME. Replication of previous findings and test-retest analyses bolstered the simulation analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the feasibility of AIF recovery using SIME with one venous sample for [11C]ABP688, [11C]CUMI-101, and [11C]DASB. This method simplifies PET acquisition while allowing for fully quantitative modeling, although some variability and bias are present with respect to AIF-based quantification, which may depend on the accuracy of the single venous blood measurement.
Neurons in rat orbitofrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex exhibit distinct responses in reward and strategy-update in a risk-based decision-making task.
Dec 11, 2018   Metabolic Brain Disease
Hong DD, Huang WQ, Ji AA, Yang SS, Xu H, Sun KY, Cao A, Gao WJ, Zhou N, Yu P
Neurons in rat orbitofrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex exhibit distinct responses in reward and strategy-update in a risk-based decision-making task.
Dec 11, 2018
Metabolic Brain Disease
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are known to participate in risk-based decision-making. However, whether neuronal activities of these two brain regions play similar or differential roles during different stages of risk-based decision-making process remains unknown. Here we conducted multi-channel in vivo recordings in the OFC and mPFC simultaneously when rats were performing a gambling task. Rats were trained to update strategy as the task was shifted in two stages. Behavioral testing suggests that rats exhibited different risk preferences and response latencies to food rewards during stage-1 and stage-2. Indeed, the firing patterns and numbers of non-specific neurons and nosepoking-predicting neurons were similar in OFC and mPFC. However, there were no reward-expecting neurons and significantly more reward-excitatory neurons (fired as rats received rewards) in the mPFC. Further analyses suggested that nosepoking-predicting neurons may encode the overall value of reward and strategy, whereas reward-expecting neurons show more intensive firing to a big food reward in the OFC. Nosepoking-predicting neurons in mPFC showed no correlation with decision-making strategy updating, whereas the response of reward-excitatory neurons in mPFC, which were barely observed in OFC, were inhibited during nosepoking, but were enhanced in the post-nosepoking period. These findings indicate that neurons in the OFC and mPFC exhibit distinct responses in decision-making process during reward consumption and strategy updating. Specifically, OFC encodes the overall value of a choice and is thus important for learning and strategy updating, whereas mPFC plays a key role in monitoring and execution of a strategy.
Neurons in the Macaque Dorsal Premotor Cortex Respond to Execution and Observation of Actions.
Dec 11, 2018   Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
Papadourakis V, Raos V
Neurons in the Macaque Dorsal Premotor Cortex Respond to Execution and Observation of Actions.
Dec 11, 2018
Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
We identified neurons in dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of the macaque brain that respond during execution and observation of reaching-to-grasp actions, thus fulfilling the mirror neuron (MirN) criterion. During observation, the percentage of grip-selective MirNs in PMd and area F5 were comparable, and the selectivity indices in the two areas were similar. During execution, F5-MirNs were more selective than PMd-MirNs for grip, which was reflected in the higher selectivity indices in F5 than in PMd. PMd displayed grip-related information earlier than F5 during both conditions. In both areas, the number of neurons exhibiting congruent visual and motor selectivity did not differ from that expected by chance. However, both the PMd and F5 neuronal ensembles provided observation-execution matching, suggesting that the congruency may be achieved in a distributed fashion across the selective elements of the population. Furthermore, representational similarity analysis revealed that grip encoding in PMd and F5 is alike during both observation and execution. Our study provides direct evidence of mirror activity in PMd during observation of forelimb movements, and suggests that PMd is a node of the MirN circuit.
Neuregulin 1 type III improves peripheral nerve myelination in a mouse model of congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy.
Dec 11, 2018   Human Molecular Genetics
Belin S, Ornaghi F, Shackleford G, Wang J, Scapin C,   . . . . . .   , Fratta P, D'Antonio M, Poitelon Y, Laura Feltri M, Wrabetz L
Neuregulin 1 type III improves peripheral nerve myelination in a mouse model of congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy.
Dec 11, 2018
Human Molecular Genetics
Myelin sheath thickness is precisely regulated and essential for rapid propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons. In the peripheral nervous system, extrinsic signals from the axonal protein neuregulin 1 type III regulate Schwann cell fate and myelination. Here we ask if modulating neuregulin 1 type III levels in neurons would restore myelination in a model of congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN). Using a mouse model of CHN, we improved the myelination defects by early overexpression of neuregulin 1 type III. Surprisingly, the improvement was independent from the upregulation of Egr2 or essential myelin genes. Rather, we observed the activation of MAPK/ERK and other myelin genes such as peripheral myelin protein 2 (Pmp2) and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (Omg). We also confirmed that the permanent activation of MAPK/ERK in Schwann cells has detrimental effects on myelination. Our findings demonstrate that the modulation of axon-to-glial neuregulin 1 type III signaling has beneficial effects and improves myelination defects during development in a model of CHN.
Patterns of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia; a replication study.
Dec 13, 2018   Psychiatry Research
Swets M, van Dijk FA, Schirmbeck F, Peen J, de Haan L,   . . . . . .   , Kahn RS, Simons CJP, van Haren NE, van Os J, van Winkel R
Patterns of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia; a replication study.
Dec 13, 2018
Psychiatry Research
Research has found that Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia are associated with either more or less negative symptoms and either better or poorer cognitive functioning. In order to explain these contradictory results, (Lysaker et al., 2004), performed a cluster analysis resulting in 2 OCS positive (OCSpos) clusters, one with higher functioning (HF) and one with poorer functioning (PF) compared to 2 OCS negative (OCSneg) clusters. The OCSpos/HF cluster had less negative symptoms compared to all other clusters, while the OCSpos/PF cluster showed poorer executive functioning. We performed a replication study, in an almost 10 times larger, representative sample, using both a longitudinal and cross-sectional design. Similar to Lysaker et al., we found a group with mild OCS and HF (OCSmild/HF) showing less negative symptoms compared to the PF groups. We also found an OCSmild/PF group, which did not significantly differ in executive functioning from the other groups. Moreover, we did not find evidence for a better prognosis in the OCSmild/HF group, and thus found no support for the assumption that for some patients OCS might be an effective coping mechanism.

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